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Drainage basin :

Drainage basin A drainage basin is an extent or area of land where water from rain and melting snow or ice drains downhill into a body of water.

Water divide:

Water divide Each drainage basin is separated topographically from adjacent basins by a geographical barrier such as a ridge , hill or mountain, which is known as a water divide.

Drainage Patterns:

Drainage Patterns There are four types of drainage patterns:- Dendritic R ectangular Radial Trellis

Dendritic Drainage :

Dendritic Drainage The dendritic pattern d evelops where the r iver channel follows t he slope of the terrain. common in massive rock and in flat lying strata.

Rectangular Drainage:

Rectangular Drainage A rectangular drainage pattern develops on a strongly jointed rocky terrain.

Trellis Drainage:

Trellis Drainage A river joined by its tributaries , approximately at right angles, develops a trellis pattern.

Radial Drainage:

Radial Drainage The streams radiate outwards from a central high point. Volcanoes usually display excellent radial drainage.

Course of a River:

Course of a River

Upper Course:

Upper Course

Middle Course:

Middle Course

Lower Course:

Lower Course The Ganges Delta also Sunderban Delta is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, India. It is the world's largest delta, and empties into the Bay of Bengal. Ganges River Delta

Himalayan Rivers:

Himalayan Rivers The Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Indus together are known as the Himalayan Rivers.

Peninsular Rivers:

Peninsular Rivers Godaveri , Krishna , Kaveri , Narmada , Tapi and Mahanadi are known as the Peninsular rivers.

Comparison between the Himalayan & Peninsular Rivers:

Comparison between the Himalayan & Peninsular Rivers Himalayan Rivers Peninsular Rivers These rivers originate from the glaciers. Catchment area is very large. Engaged in high erosion activity. Useful in irrigation Perennial. Eg.:- Indus, Ganga. These rivers originate from the plateaus. Catchment area is very small. Engaged in low erosion activity. Not very useful in irrigation Non-perennial. Eg.:-Godaveri, Narmada.

The Ganges River System :

The Ganges River System The Ganges , is the largest river of the Indian subcontinent, flowing east through the Gangetic Plain of northern India into Bangladesh . The 2,510 km (1,560 mi) river rises in the Gangotri Glacier. The Ganges in Varani



Main Features Of The Ganga System:

Main Features Of The Ganga System The length of the Ganga is over 2500 kms. It has the largest basin. From the Himalayas the Ganga enters the plains at Haridwar. It is joined by a number of tributaries i.e. Yamuna, Son, Kosi & Gandak. The Ganga enters Bangladesh as Padma. The river is called Meghna when Brahmaputra joins it. It creates the largest delta, Sunderban with the help of Brahmaputra .

The Godaveri River System :

The Godaveri River System The Godavari , is a river that runs from western to southern India and is considered to be one of the biggest river basins in India.



Main Features Of Godaveri :

Main Features Of Godaveri Length of 1465 km, it is the second longest river in India. It originates near Trimbak in Nashik District of Maharashtra state. It flows east across the Deccan Plateau into the Bay of Bengal near Narasapuram in West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. It is a major waterway in central India. It is known as dakshin Ganga. The Godavari River has a drainage area of 3,42,812 km².

Benefits of a River :

Benefits of a River The rivers contain sweet and fresh water which is most necessary for man as well as animals for survival. They provide water for irrigation and cultivation available in abundance. They make the soil rich in Alluvial. These serve as arteries of commerce. They are good for navigation. Estuaries, near the shores , where the sweet water mixes freely with the salt water of the oceans, have proved to be the most biologically productive areas of the world . All type of fishes survive over here. Rivers are harnessed for generation of hydro-electricity.


Lakes A lake is a terrain feature, a body of liquid on the surface of a world that is localized to the bottom of basin . Another definition is a body of fresh or salt water of considerable size that is surrounded by land.

Different Types of Lakes:

Different Types of Lakes There are mainly two types of lakes : Natural lakes: Fresh water lake –Wular lake Salt water lake – Chilka lake Man Made Lakes- Guru Gobind Sagar

Fresh water lake:

Fresh water lake WULAR LAKE DAL LAKE

Salt water lake:


Benefits of a Lake :

Benefits of a Lake The lakes contain water which is most necessary for man as well as animals for survival. They provide water for irrigation and cultivation available in abundance. Lakes are harnessed for generation of hydro-electricity. They promote tourism. They help in maintaining climate. They help in maintaining the aquatic ecosystem.

Water Pollution:

Water Pollution Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater).It affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities.

Causes of Water Pollution:

Causes of Water Pollution Organic water pollutants include: Detergents Disinfection by-products found in chemically disinfected drinking water. Food processing waste demanding oxygen substances, Insecticides and herbicides&chemical compounds. Petroleum hydrocarbons. Tree and bush debris from logging operations. Cosmetic products

Causes of Water Pollution:

Causes of Water Pollution Inorganic water pollutants include: Acidity caused by industrial discharges. Ammonia from food processing waste Chemical waste as industrial by-products Fertilizers containing nutrients-nitrates and phosphates. Heavy metals from motor vehicles and acid mine drainage. Silt in runoff from construction sites, logging, slash and burn practices or land clearing sites

Control of water pollution :

Control of water pollution Domestic Sewage Utilizing a green infrastructure approach to improve storm water management capacity throughout the system, and reduce the hydraulic overloading of the treatment plant . Repair and replacement of leaking and malfunctioning equipment . Increasing overall hydraulic capacity of the sewage collection system .

Industrial wastewater :

Industrial wastewater Heated water generated by power plants or manufacturing plants may be controlled with: Cooling ponds, man-made bodies of water designed for cooling by evaporation, convection, and radiation. Cooling towers, which transfer waste heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and/or heat transfer Cogeneration, a process where waste heat is recycled for domestic and/or industrial heating purposes.

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