Radio Frequency Identification


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Radio Frequency Identification


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M.N.Technical Institute Kammagondanahalli, Bangalore-15:

M.N.Technical Institute Kammagondanahalli, Bangalore-15 Communication Analysis and Skill Development Programme Lab

Task – 9 Presentation Skill:

Batch : Ajay Simha. Y Harsharjuna. N Kishore. V. Pawar Naresh. R Vivek. V. Joseph Topic : RFID: Technology and Applications Task – 9 Presentation Skill


Contents What is RFID? RFID system components. Smart labels RFID tags RFID readers Applications Advantages RFID communication Operational Frequencies RF efffects on materials Problems and solutions Points to note Summary Conclusion Bibliography

What is RFID?:

. What is RFID? RFID = Radio Frequency IDentification. An ADC (Automated Data Collection) technology that: uses radio-frequency waves to transfer data between a reader and a movable item to identify, categorize, track.. Is fast and does not require physical sight or contact between reader/scanner and the tagged item. Performs the operation using low cost components. Attempts to provide unique identification and backend integration that allows for wide range of applications. Other ADC technologies: Bar codes, OCR.

RFID system components:

RFID system components

RFID tags: Smart labels:

RFID tags: Smart labels … and a chip attached to it … on a substrate e.g. a plastic foil ... an antenna, printed, etched or stamped ... A paper label with RFID inside

RFID tags:

. Tags can be attached to almost anything: Items, cases or pallets of products, high value goods vehicles, assets, livestock or personnel Passive Tags Do not require power – Draws from Interrogator Field Lower storage capacities (few bits to 1 KB) Shorter read ranges (4 inches to 15 feet) Usually Write-Once-Read-Many/Read-Only tags Cost around 25 cents to few dollars Active Tags Battery powered Higher storage capacities (512 KB) Longer read range (300 feet) Typically can be re-written by RF Interrogators Cost around 50 to 250 dollars RFID tags

Tag block diagram:

. Tag block diagram Antenna Power Supply Tx Modulator Rx Demodulator Control Logic (Finite State machine) Memory Cells Tag Integrated Circuit (IC)

RFID tag memory :

. RFID tag memory Read-only tags Tag ID is assigned at the factory during manufacturing Can never be changed No additional data can be assigned to the tag Write once, read many (WORM) tags Data written once, e.g., during packing or manufacturing Tag is locked once data is written Similar to a compact disc or DVD Read/Write Tag data can be changed over time Part or all of the data section can be locked

RFID readers:

. RFID readers Reader functions: Remotely power tags Establish a bidirectional data link Inventory tags, filter results Communicate with networked server(s) Can read 100-300 tags per second Readers (interrogators) can be at a fixed point such as Entrance/exit Point of sale Readers can also be mobile/hand-held

Some RFID readers:

. Some RFID readers Source:

Reader anatomy:

Reader anatomy 915MHz Radio Network Processor Digital Signal Processor (DSP) 13.56MHz Radio Power Supply

RFID application points:

. RFID application points Assembly Line Shipping Portals Handheld Applications Bill of Lading Material Tracking Wireless

RFID applications:

RFID applications Manufacturing and Processing Inventory and production process monitoring Warehouse order fulfillment Supply Chain Management Inventory tracking systems Logistics management Retail Inventory control and customer insight Auto checkout with reverse logistics Security Access control Counterfeiting and Theft control/prevention Location Tracking Traffic movement control and parking management Wildlife/Livestock monitoring and tracking

Smart groceries:

Smart groceries Add an RFID tag to all items in the grocery. As the cart leaves the store, it passes through an RFID transceiver. The cart is rung up in seconds.

Smart fridge:

Smart fridge Recognizes what’s been put in it Recognizes when things are removed Creates automatic shopping lists Notifies you when things are past their expiration Shows you the recipes that most closely match what is available

RFID advantages over bar-codes:

RFID advantages over bar-codes No line of sight required for reading Multiple items can be read with a single scan Each tag can carry a lot of data (read/write) Individual items identified and not just the category Passive tags have a virtually unlimited lifetime Active tags can be read from great distances Can be combined with barcode technology

RFID communication:

RFID communication Tags Reader Power from RF field Reader Antenna Reader->Tag Commands Tag->Reader Responses RFID Communication Channel

RFID communication:

RFID communication Host manages Reader(s) and issues Commands Reader and tag communicate via RF signal Carrier signal generated by the reader Carrier signal sent out through the antennas Carrier signal hits tag(s) Tag receives and modifies carrier signal “sends back” modulated signal (Passive Backscatter – also referred to as “field disturbance device”) Antennas receive the modulated signal and send them to the Reader Reader decodes the data Results returned to the host application

Operational frequencies:

Operational frequencies

RF effects of common materials:

RF effects of common materials Material Effect(s) on RF signal Cardboard Absorption (moisture) Detuning (dielectric) Conductive liquids (shampoo) Absorption Plastics Detuning (dielectric) Metals Reflection Groups of cans Complex effects (lenses, filters) Reflection Human body / animals Absorption, Detuning, Reflection

Reader Collision and Hidden Terminal:

Reader Collision and Hidden Terminal The passive tags are not able to take part in the collision resolution or avoidance, as in other wireless systems Consider: RTS-CTS for hidden terminal problem in 80211 rfid: T is not able to send a CTS in response to an RTS from R In case multiple readers try to read the same tag, the tag cannot respond selectively to a particular reader

TDMA based solution:

TDMA based solution Assign different time slots and/or frequencies to nearby readers Reduces to graph coloring problem (readers form vertices) Only reader to reader interference Assign different operating frequencies Only multiple reader to tag interference Assign different time slots for operation Both types of interference First allot different time slots, then frequencies

Tag Collision Problem:

Tag Collision Problem Multiple tags simultaneously respond to query Results in collision at the reader Several approaches Tree algorithm Memoryless protocol Contactless protocol I-code protocol

Using tags with metal:

. Using tags with metal Tags placed directly against metal will negatively affect readability Offset tag from surface Space tag from surface Couple one end of the antenna to the metal Angle Tag

PowerPoint Presentation:

. The “Blocker” Tag approach “Tree-walking” protocol for identifying tags recursively asks question: “What is your next bit?” Blocker tag always says both ‘0’ and ‘1’ ! Makes it seem like all possible tags are present Reader cannot figure out which tags are actually present Number of possible tags is huge , so reader stalls

More on blocker tags:

. More on blocker tags Blocker tag can be selective: Privacy zones: Only block certain ranges of RFID-tag serial numbers Zone mobility : Allow shops to move items into privacy zone upon purchase Example: Blocker blocks all identifiers with leading ‘1’ bit Items in supermarket carry leading ‘0’ bit On checkout, leading bit is flipped from ‘0’ to ‘1’ PIN required, as for “kill” operation

The Challenge-Response approach:

. The Challenge-Response approach Tag does not give all its information to reader. The closer the reader, the more the processing. Tag reveals highest level of authenticated information. Reader specifies which level it wants. Tag specifies level of security, and/or amount of energy needed. Reader proceeds at that level of security. Tag responds if and only if it gets energy and security required.

Points to note about RFID:

Points to note about RFID RFID benefits are due to automation and optimization. RFID is not a plug & play technology. “One frequency fits all” is a myth. Technology is evolving but physics has limitations. RFID does not solve data inconsistency within and across enterprises. Management of RFID infrastructure and data has been underestimated.

RFID Summary:

. RFID Summary Strengths Advanced technology Easy to use High memory capacity Small size Weaknesses Lack of industry and application standards High cost per unit and high RFID system integration costs Weak market understanding of the benefits of RFID Opportunities Could replace the bar code End-user demand for RFID systems is increasing Huge market potential in many businesses Threats Ethical threats concerning privacy life Highly fragmented competitive environment




Conclusion The RFID technology is an innovative solution to the current business process and management. It is a tool for the companies to re-think the design of business process flows.

Thank You:

Thank You

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