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NO COST OR LOW COST PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES 1 N0-COST OR LOW COST CAMPUS PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES FOR ADMINISTRATORS FACULTY STAFF AND STUDENTS Date: Wednesday June 6 2012 Time: 3:00pm – 5:00pm Room: K-308 Panel Members Eugene Glover Chief Financial Officer COGNITION LLC 1250 Connecticut Ave. NW Suite 200 Washington DC 20036 1202 454-9907 W 1202 318-1462 F 1 703 408-3903 M E-mail egloverCognitionLLC.com www.CognitionLLC.com Blythe J. Patenaude President URBAN PREPAREDNESS INC. 9016 Doris Drive. Ft. Washington MD 20744 1202 386-0906 E-mail pjoybakeraol.com Clint Wallace USAF Ret CEO COGNITION LLC 1250 Connecticut Ave. NW Suite 200 Washington DC 20036 1202 454-9907 W www.CognitionLLC.com

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NO COST OR LOW COST PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES 3 N0-COST OR LOW COST CAMPUS PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES Wednesday June 6 2012 the 15 th Annual Emergency Management Higher Education Conference continued its goal of “preparing for the future of Emergency Management and Homeland Security” by putting on a stellar presentation on the topic of “no-cost/ low cost campus preparedness strategies for administrators faculty staff and students.” This 2-hour break-out session which was held in room K-308 of the spacious Emergency Management Institute building on the Institute‟s Campus in Emmitsburg MD was presented by Ms. Blythe J. Patenaude preparedness specialist and president of Urban Preparedness Inc. based out of Ft. Washington MD Mr. Clint Wallace CEO of Cognition LLC based out of Washington DC. and Mr. Eugene Glover chief financial officer also from Cognition LLC based out of Washington DC. These three presenters who in combination possessed an impressive wealth of expertise in areas such as higher educational institution assessment and evaluations disaster preparedness affordable preparedness products data management and effective managing of emergencies offered their knowledge to the highly motivated audience of practitioners educators college administrators police officers police academy directors firefighters college campus security officials and graduate/ undergraduate students that were in attendance. Five primary objectives were the basis for the presentation which included 1 providing an illustration of the historical impact of disasters on college campuses 2 understanding the challenges and approaches of campuses in moving towards being either disaster resistant or prepared for disasters 3 identifying key issues in communications and continuity of operations and 4 consideration of several no-cost and low cost strategies designed to increase college campus preparedness awareness.

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NO COST OR LOW COST PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES 4 Illustrative Impact of Major Incidents on College Campuses The importance of the topics addressed by the presenters could be seen considering the recent history of major crisis events on college campuses in the United States. According to Hebel as cited in Stein Vickio Fogo and Abraham 2007 “it has been estimated that Hurricane Katrina cost Mississippi‟s public and private colleges upwards of 700 million dollars” p. 331. In the aftermath of the Hurricane Katrina incident which occurred in August of 2005 “Tulane University located in New Orleans Louisiana announced cuts of 230 faculty positions and the elimination of 14 doctoral programs to cover the estimated 200 million worth of damage to the university caused by the storm” Kaiser as cited in Stein et al. 2007 p. 331. Other major crisis events on college campuses includes incidents that occurred at the Seton Hall University Campus Virginia Tech University Northern Illinois University and the University of Alabama to name a few. On January 19 2000 a predawn blaze in a dormitory on the campus of Seton Hall University in South Orange New Jersey killed three people and injured 54 others which also included injuries to 2 firefighters and 2 police officers Gips 2000. On April 16 2007 thirty two students and faculty members were shot and killed by a fellow student on the college campus of Virginia Tech University in Blacksburg Virginia Dameron Detardo-Bora and Bora 2009. In a similar incident on February 14 2008 a lone gunman who was a former student at Northern Illinois University in Dekalb Illinois opened fire in a large lecture hall subsequently killing 5 students and wounding 17 others before killing himself Littleton Kumpula 2011. And as recently as April 19 2012 Tuscaloosa Police and University Police officials responded to reports of fights and numerous shots fired just outside the campus grounds of the University of Alabama resulting in a chaotic scene on the college campus.

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NO COST OR LOW COST PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES 5 While incidences of mass shootings major fires and other disruptions on college campuses are relatively rare they account for only a small number of the types of emergencies that colleges must be prepared for which can include but are not limited to flooding conditions false alarms toxic chemical spills external hazards evacuation orders bomb threats medical emergencies natural hazards and security breaches. Unfortunately due to the economic conditions that have impacted every facet of American life including higher education institutions college administrators are forced to grapple with their need and obligations to provide a safe environment for their student and faculty body while at the same time doing so under tight budgetary constraints. According to Murray as cited in Zalud 2007 “security and emergency response procedures are foremost on the minds of college and university communities locally and nationally” but no matter the campus or the state there is still the budget challenge p. 16. To the extent the lack of substantial finances can impact on a college campus‟s ability tp effectively respond to crisis events Ms. Blythe Patenaude of Urban Preparedness Inc. and Mr. Eugene Glover and Mr. Clint Wallace of Cognition LLC targeted their presentation on the important topic of preparedness in spite of limited funding which included a great deal of useful information that could be applied quickly easily with little or no cost and with a big return on investment. 10 Low Cost or No Cost Recommendations for College/University Campus Preparedness The recommendations provided by the panel members for low cost/ no cost preparedness included 1 build strong relationships with local first responder police fire. EMS organizations responsible for responding to on-campus emergencies 2 utilize preparedness

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NO COST OR LOW COST PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES 6 preparation programs to improve safety perception 3 utilize intellectual capital readily available in the student body 4 thoroughly support budget request for emergency management preparedness programs 5 adopt or develop crisis incident notification program designed to lessen communications tie-ups 6 utilize new student and new employee orientation as a way to provide training 7 make the emergency plan more meaningful and more than just another lengthy plan 8 participate in annual drills 9 establish and maintain a CERT team and 10 consider that notification is not enough. 1. Building Strong Liaison Relationships with Local First Responder Organizations According to Mr. Eugene Glover of Cognition LLC although most colleges and universities have fairly well established police or security systems in place other services such as fire services health and EMS are generally provided by the external public safety organizations that have jurisdictional responsibility over the college campus. As such strong liaison relationships between these external public safety organizations and campus emergency management officials are very important. Quality liaison relationships help to foster efficient response coordination and an understanding of available resources in the event of a major event. Although statistics show many universities presently give this simple act of opening liaison with the local public safety organizations sufficient attention considering that 82 of university respondents to one survey said their institution had good relationships with other agencies Gray as cited in Patenaude Wallace Glover Snead 2012 the benefits of this actions makes it an essential recommendation for the college campus emergency manager to pursue resolutely.

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NO COST OR LOW COST PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES 7 2. Utilizing Preparedness Preparation to Improve Safety Perception Mr. Eugene Glover of Cognition LLC touched on the importance of perception in campus safety. A large part of people‟s belief that they are safe often comes from their perception that they are safe. Therefore college campus emergency managers should do everything possible to make their safety and preparedness programs highly visible for all to see including the parents of the student population. Program visibility can include orientation videos billboards published protocols available through multiple media practice drills handouts etc. To amplify preparedness efforts some universities such as Northern Illinois University practices a mass casualty drill in combination with Homecoming on campus that not only educates students on safety practices and mimics a drunken driving accident but it also gives an annual dress rehearsal for neighboring agencies to practice response together Wethal 2009 p.36. By increasing the visibility of the university or college campus preparedness programs through practices mock drills and increased visibility it not only increases a feeling of safety but it also assist campus faculty and students to either seek to support these programs or at least seek them out for information and necessary actions in the event of an emergency. 3. Utilizing Intellectual Capital Readily Available From Student Body Mr. Clint Wallace of Cognition LLC continued the ball rolling by raising the simplistic and yet easily elusive concept of intellectual capital as a useful low cost ideas for college administrators to use in their efforts at becoming prepared for unexpected events. Intellectual capital is an incredible resource that is often underutilized or never considered by college administrators as they seek to address preparedness issues. College administrators are often surrounded by a highly educated and motivated student body that is just waiting to make their

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NO COST OR LOW COST PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES 8 mark on the world by contributing to a worthy cause. Many students often look for opportunities to enhance a future resume and gain insight in a particular field such as emergency management or simply provide a civic service to their school. To this extent college administrators should find ways to marry the needs of their preparedness programs with the intellectual capital resources found in the student body. Activities that students can be tapped to assist with can include internship opportunities mock incidents and response planning protocol development research and orientation training. 4. Thoroughly Support Budget Request for Preparedness Programs Mr. Clint Wallace raised the need for college emergency managers/ coordinators who are tasked with submitting budget requests to thoroughly support requests for funding with strong well-written and convincing arguments and proposals. Emergency management directors seeking funding are often up against an administration that is grappling with several competing financial interests. Further the historical safety record of a school may lull cash strapped administrators into a false sense of security resulting in less priority and less funding allocation towards emergency management programs and preparedness initiatives. In order to help curb this possibility emergency management administrators must work to support their needed budgets with strong well-written and convincing arguments backed by statistical data applicable mandates and campus risk assessments for the specific college or university involved. 5. Adopt Incident Notification Programs Designed to Lessen Communications Tie-ups During major crisis incidents on school campuses probably the one primary question that results in the greatest tie up of communications is concerned loved ones calling into the campus to find out if their child is okay or vice versa. As important as this simple function is it has the

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NO COST OR LOW COST PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES 9 tendency to tie up vital communications means that may be desperately needed by public safety officials attempting to deal with the crisis. According to SafeAmerica n.d. during the September 11 2001 terror attacks the Hurricane Katrina incident and the 2011 East Coast earthquakes massive mobile phone service disruptions were caused by millions of Americans attempting to make notifications. Two potential solutions ICE- In Case of Emergency IMOK protocols can be adopted or uniquely developed by colleges and universities to address the concern of communications tie-ups and drastically reduce communications traffic during a crisis event. First the ICE In Case of Emergency decal is a simple idea of programming emergency contact information into a cellphone that also displays the sticker decal to alert first responders and others that the owner of the phone has preprogrammed contact information which can be utilized in the event of an emergency. The great thing about using this ICE information is that concerned loved ones will have a sense of security that they would receive a rapid contact if their child was involved in an incident which will reduce the temptation to randomly call the school or tie up other communication networks trying to find out if their child is okay. Second IMOK which sounds out the words “I am okay” when sent via text message reduces the burden on communication networks during emergencies by providing a quick information-limiting text that answers the most important initial inquiry with the text message “IMOK.” 6. Preparedness Training in Concert with New Student and Employee Orientation Ms. Blythe Patenaude of Urban Preparedness Inc. rounded off the breakout session with several additional recommendations first of which touched on using preparedness training in concert with new student and new employee orientations. Perhaps the best opportunity to have

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NO COST OR LOW COST PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES 10 the captured attention of every student and employee on the campus is during mandated new student and new employee orientations. During these orientation sessions information protocols and expectations related to preparedness can be incorporated and presented by the emergency management personnel or their designee. Although the time slot will be limited basic important information such as the three things every student and faculty needs to know pack plan and practice can be imparted with great effect. Evacuation plans and routes can be reviewed. And thought provoking considerations could be offered to the students on topics such as considering alternative emergency housing packing several days of rations and considering what items may be important to take in the event of a required evacuation. 7. Making the Emergency Plan More Meaningful and More Than Just Another Plan Ms. Blythe Patenaude points out the importance of having the comprehensive emergency plan available to faculty students and parents and posted at regulated locations on campus including university websites in compliance with applicable laws. However she also notes to the extent that mere posting does not guarantee anyone will actually read the plan a truncated version should also be issued along with the full version that highlights the 10 or 20 most important things that should be known about the plan. 8. Participation in Annual Drills During National Preparedness Month September An important part of preparedness is practicing. Practicing can include simple fire drill evacuation exercises where college educators are expected to conform to classroom and building evacuation procedures or they may be more complex multijurisdictional planned mass casualty events involving external agencies. In either case the month of September represents an ideal time for these annual practice drills since it has been designated National Preparedness Month by

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NO COST OR LOW COST PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES 11 way of presidential proclamation. In 2011 President Barack Obama declared September National Preparedness Month and “encouraged all Americans to recognize the importance of preparedness and observe this month by working together to enhance our national security resilience and readiness.” Currently SafeAmerica tracks the level of participation in preparedness events during the month of September. Ms. Blythe Patenaude recommends that at least one exercise should be conducted during the month of September and then SafeAmerica should be contacted to let them know the college or universities participated in the “drill down to safety initiative” and provide a number count. SafeAmerica can be reached at 1 770 973-7233. 9. Establishing Community Emergency Response Team CERT on Campus Establishing a CERT Community Emergency Response Team on campus brings with it many opportunities for creativity in how the college or university approach emergency preparedness programs. The CERT “program educates people about disaster preparedness for hazards that may impact their area and trains them in basic disaster response skills such as fire safety light search and rescue team organization and disaster medical operations.” “Using the training learned in the classroom and during exercises CERT members can assist others in their neighborhood or workplace following an event when professional responders are not immediately available to help” Citizen Corps. Ms. Blythe Patenaude points out some effective ways that CERT teams and training can be utilized on campus to supplement and bolster preparedness efforts. She points out dormitory and other buildings managers should receive CERT training so that the college or university can have the strategic deployment of highly trained CERT personnel throughout the campus. In addition to these facility managers other members that should have CERT training are selected members

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NO COST OR LOW COST PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES 12 from the student council the dean‟s office from the faculty and from the staff. Additionally students should be invited to participate and become members of CERT teams. 10. Notification is Not Enough Perhaps this last recommendation is a fitting conclusion and recap of the previous nine recommendations that were offered by the presenters of “No cost or low cost preparedness strategies.” This is so because as noted above mere notification is not enough. It is not enough to simply notify public safety and the student body in the event of an emergency. It is not enough to provide notification of compliance with laws that require development and posting of emergency plans. And it is not enough to notify of the safe history of the campus as a means of resting any concerns related to limited preparedness actions. Notification is a must but it must also be supplemented with strong effort to truly make the campus environment better prepared for emergencies. Therefore in addition to notifications college administrators who are responsible for the emergency management function must strive to build strong relationships with local first responder organizations that are responsible for responding to on-campus emergencies. They must utilize preparedness preparation programs to improve safety perception of the campus members. Whenever possible they should utilize intellectual capital readily available in the student body. And when seeking funding or seeking to maintain current funding levels they should thoroughly support budget request for emergency management preparedness programs. Other issues that should be considered in addition to notifications are to adopt or develop crisis incident notification programs designed to lessen communications tie-ups. Also utilize new student and new employee orientation as a way to provide training. Strong efforts should go

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NO COST OR LOW COST PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES 13 into making the emergency plan more meaningful and more than just another lengthy plan. Finally practice practice practice which should include annual drills and where possible the establishment and mock drills with a CERT team.

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NO COST OR LOW COST PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES 14 References Citizen Corp n.d.. Community emergency response teams CERT. Citizen Corp. Retrieved from http://www.citizencorps.gov/cert/ Dameron S. L. Detardo-bora Bora 2009. An assessment of campus security and police information on college/university websites. Security Journal 22 4 251-268. DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.sj.8350082 Gips M. A. 2000. Campus security takes on fire safety. Security Management. 44 8 Retrieved from http://library.capella.edu/loginurlhttp://search.proquest.com.library. Capella.edu/docview/231129377accountid27965 Patenaude B. J. Wallace C. Glover G. Snead C. 2012. No cost and low cost resilience strategies for institutions of higher education. Cognition/Urban Preparedness. President Obama B. H. 2011. Presidential proclamation: National preparedness month. The White House Office of the Press Secretary. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/ the-press-office/2011/08/31/presidential-proclamation-national-preparedness-month SafeAmerica n.d.. Text first talk second. Retrieved from http://www.safeamerica.org/home/89. html Stein C. H Vickio C. J Fogo W. R. Abraham K. M. 2007. Making connections: A

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NO COST OR LOW COST PREPAREDNESS STRATEGIES 15 network approach to university disaster preparedness. Journal of College Student Development. 48 3. 331-343. T Wethal T. 2009. In the shadows of slaughter. Law Enforcement Technology. 36 6. Retrieved from http://library.capella.edu/loginurl+http://search.proquest.com.library.capella. edu/docviw/ 229840076accountid27965 Zalud B. 2007 June. VT „defining moment‟ but what‟s the meaning Security 44 6 12 14 16. Retrieved from http://library.capella.edu/loginurlhttp://search.proquest.com.library. capella.edu/docview/197891065accountid27965

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