ANTHRAQUINONE Glyco.

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ANTHRAQUINONE GLYCOSIDES:

DR. HARISH N. KAKRANI PRINCIPAL, CDCP ANTHRAQUINONE GLYCOSIDES

ANTHRAQUINONE GLYCOSIDES:

ANTHRAQUINONE GLYCOSIDES Anthracene glycosides are the organic compounds from plants or animal sources which on enzymatic or acid hydrolysis gives one or more glycones (sugar moieties) along with aglycone. Chemically these are the ACETALS or SUGAR ETHERS formed by the interaction of –OH group each of anthraquinone moiety and sugar ,with a loss of water molecule. Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 2

ANTHRAQUINONE GLYCOSIDES:

ANTHRAQUINONE GLYCOSIDES Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 3

ANTHRAQUINONE GLYCOSIDES:

ANTHRAQUINONE GLYCOSIDES Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 4

ANTHRAQUINONE GLYCOSIDES:

ANTHRAQUINONE GLYCOSIDES Mechanism of action: Anthracenosides are PURGATIVE because of their irritating action on large intestine. They stimulate the muscular structure i.e., smooth muscles of large intestine through which peristaltic movements gets accelerated results in evacuation of intestinal contents. Simultaneously the mucus secretion is stimulated and water absorption is hindered and soft stools will be formed. Action starts after 8-12 hrs. Activity is due to anthranols ,anthrones and dianthrones. Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 5

INDIAN SENNA:

INDIAN SENNA Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 6

INDIAN SENNA:

INDIAN SENNA SYNONYMS : senna folium , senna-ki-patti , tinnevelly senna ,cassia senna BIOLOGICAL SOURCE : It is obtained from dried leaflets of Cassia angustifolia Vahl belongs to Family : Leguminosae . CULTIVATION AND COLLECTION: Soil-RED loamy/coarse gravelly soil. 1 st sowing - feb -march. 2 nd sowing - oct-november . 1 st harvesting – when leafs turn to thick ,fully grown and greenish. 2 nd harvesting- after 4-6 weeks of 1 st harvesting. 3 rd harvesting- after 2weeks of 2 nd harvesting. Heavy irrigation and water logging are avoided. Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 7

INDIAN SENNA:

MACROSCOPIC CHARACTERS : Color: Yellowish green Odour: Slight Taste: Mucilagenous, bitter & characteristic. Size: 7-8mm in width; 25-60mm in length. Shape: Lanceolate Margin: Entire Apex: Acute with spine at the top Base: Asymmetrical. INDIAN SENNA 8 Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP

INDIAN SENNA:

MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERS : Epidermis : unicelllular ,conical, thick walled warty trichomes. stomata: paracytic or rubiaceous. Palisade tisssue on both sides (iso bilateral leaf lets). Calcium oxalate crystals are present. Spongy mesophyll, patch of sclerenchyma, cluster sheath and presence of collenchyma are the characteristics of senna. INDIAN SENNA 9 Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP

INDIAN SENNA:

Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 10 INDIAN SENNA

INDIAN SENNA:

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS : Mainly 2 anthraquinone glycosides: sennoside A & sennoside B. Sennosides A & B are stereoisomers of each other They are dimeric glycosides with rhein dianthrone as aglycone. Differ in the way of linkage of glucose to the aglycone fraction. Other anthraquinone glycosides: sennosides C & D, rhein 8-glucoside, aloe emodin, anthrone diglucoside, kaempferol, isorhamnetin. 2 naphthalene glycoside: Tinnevellin glycoside, 6-hydroxy musizin glycoside Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 11 INDIAN SENNA

INDIAN SENNA:

Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 12 INDIAN SENNA Aloe emodin

INDIAN SENNA:

STANDARDS: Foreign organic matter: Not more than 2% Total ash: Not more than 12% Acid insol. ash: Not more than 2% Moisture content: Not more than 10% Water soluble extractives: Not more than 30% Heavy metals: Lead: Not more than 10ppm Cadmium: Not more than 0.3 ppm Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 13 INDIAN SENNA

INDIAN SENNA:

CHEMICAL TESTS : Borntrager’s test : Drug + dil. Sulfuric acid filter filtrate + benzene/ ether/ chloroform organic layer separated + ammonia ammoniacal layer shows pink to red color, due to presence of anthraquinone glycosides. Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 14 INDIAN SENNA

INDIAN SENNA:

USES: Purgative in habitual constipation Anthraquinone glycosides of senna absorbed first in intestinal tract aglycone part separated & excreted in colon this irritates & stimulates the colon movements increased due to local action (peristalsis) resulting in decreased water absorption soft & bulky faeces Gripping effect, due to its resin or emodin content. Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 15 INDIAN SENNA

INDIAN SENNA:

ADULTERANTS: Tinnevelly senna and alexandrian senna are adulterated with: DOG SENNA (papillose cells in lower epidermis) PALTHE SENNA (No Anthraquinone glycosides) MECCA and ARABIAN SENNA (brown-green colour ,elongated) Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 16 INDIAN SENNA

ALEXANDRIAN SENNA:

ALEXANDRIAN SENNA Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 17

Difference between Alexandrian Senna & Indian Senna:

Difference between Alexandrian Senna & Indian Senna Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 18 Differentiating parameter Alexandrian Senna Indian Senna Biological source Obtained from dried leaflets of Cassia acutifolia Obtained from dried leaflets of Cassia angustifolia Cultivation & collection Collected from wild plants, sometimes from cultivated plants Collected when fruits are mature after flowering Loosely packed so they are found in broken condition Exported from Alexandria Always collected from cultivated plants Collected before flowering Tightly packed under hydraulic pressure, so found in entire & good condition Dried in shade Exported from tuticorin , Tinnevelley & South India.

Difference between Alexandrian Senna & Indian Senna:

Dr. Harish Kakrani, Glycosides, CDCP 19 Differentiating parameter Alexandrian Senna Indian Senna Chemical test In Borntrager’s test, inference is pink color and greenish orange color in U.V light In Borntrager’s test, inference is orange color in daylight & yellowish green color in UV light. Morphology Greyish green colored leaf Asymmetric base Ovate- lanceolate leaf 2-4cm long; 7-12mm wide Yellowish green colored leaf Less asymmetric base Lanceolate leaf 7-8mm width; 25 -60mm length Microscopy Vein islet number: 25- 29.5 Stomatal index: 11.4- 13.3 Palisade ratio: 9.5 (U); 7 (L) Vein islet number: 19.5- 22.5 Stomatal index: 17- 20 Palisade ratio: 7.5 (U); 5.1 (L) Difference between Alexandrian Senna & Indian Senna

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