List of All Salient features of Indian Constitution

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Salient features of Indian Constitution- In Salient features of Indian Constitution include Lengthiest written Constitution, Drawn from..... hello friends if you want to read more about Indian Constitution please visit https://www.indianconstitutions.com/

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hari May 22 2020 List of All Salient features of Indian Constitution indianconstitutions.com/salient-features-of-indian-constitutiton Introduction:- Salient Features of Indian Constitution The Indian Constitution is exclusive in its content and spirit through borrowed from almost every constitution of the world. several salient features of Indian Constitution that distinguish it from the constitution of other countries. It should be noted at the outset that a number of original Salients of Indian constitution as adopted in 1949 have undergone a considerable change on account of several amendments particularly 7th42nd 44th 73rd 74th and 97th amendment. In fact the 42nd amendment act 1976 is known as ‘mini-constitution’ due to the important and large number of changes made by it in various parts of the Constitution. however within the kesavananda Bharati case 1973 the Supreme Court ruled that the constituent power of Parliament under Article 368 doesn’t enable it to change the ‘basic structure‘ of the constitution. salients features of indian constituion 1 / 9

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List of all Salients Features of Indian Constitution The salient of features Indian constitution as it stands today are as follows: Lengthiest Written Constitution Drawn from various sources Blend of rigidity and flexibility Federal system with unitary bias Parliamentary Form of Government Synthesis of parliamentary Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy Integrated and Independent Judiciary Fundamental Rights Directive Principles of State Policy Fundamental Duties A Secular State Universal Adult Franchise Single Citizenship Independent Bodies Emergency Provision Three-tier Government Co-operative Societies Salient Features of Indian Constitution in details – Lengthiest Written Constitution constitution are classified into written like America constitution or unwritten like the British constitution the constitution of India is lengthiest of all the written constitution of the world. it is very comprehensive elaborate and detailed document. Originally In 1949 the constitution contains a preamble 395 articles divided into 22 parts and eight schedules presently 2016 it consists of a preamble about 465 articles divided into 25 parts and 12 schedules the various amendment administered since 1951 have deleted about 20 articles and 2 / 9

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one partVII and added about 90 articles four parts IVA IXA IXB and XIVA and four schedules 9 10 11 and 12. no other constitution in the world so many articles and schedules. Four factors have contributed to the elephantine size of our constitution are as follow : Geographical factors it is the vastness of the country and its diversity . Historical factors e.g – the influence of the government of india act of 1935 which was bulky. Single constitution for both the centre and states except Jammu and Kasmir. Dominance of legal luminaries in the constituent assembly . the constitution contains not only the fundamental principles of governance but also detailed administrative provisions. further those matters which in other modern democratic countries are left to the standard legislation or established political conventions have also been included within the constitutional document itself in India Also read: Article 15 of indian constitution article 16 of indian constitution Article 21 of Indian Constitution Preamble of Indian Constitution Drawn From Various Sources The constitution of India has borrowed most of its provisions from the constitution of various other countries as well as from the Government of India Act Government of India Act of 1935 Federal Scheme Office of governor Judiciary Public Service Commissions Emergency provisions and administrative details 3 / 9

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British Constitution Parliamentary government Rule of law legislative procedure single citizenship cabinet system prerogative writs parliamentary privileges and bicameralism US Constitution Fundamental rights independence of judiciary judicial review impeachment of the president removal of supreme court and high court judges and post of vice- president Irish Constitution Directive principles of state policy nomination of members to Rajya Sabha and method of election of president Canadian Constitution Federation with a strong centre vesting of residuary powers in the centre appointment of state governors by the centre and advisory jurisdiction of the supreme court Australian Constitution Concurrent list freedom of trade commerce and inter-course joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament Weimar Constituion of Germany Suspension of Fundamental Rights during Emergency 4 / 9

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Soviet Constitution USSR now Russia Fundamental duties and ideal of justice social economic and political in the preamble French Constitution Republic and ideals of liberty equality and fraternity in the preamble South African Constitution Procedure for amendment of the Constitution and election of members of Rajya Sabha Japanese Constitution Procedures established by law Blend of Rigidity and Flexibility A rigid constitution is one that requires a special procedure for its amendment for example American constitution a flexible constitution can be the same manner as the ordinary laws are constitution . The Constitution of India is neither rigid nor flexible it is synthesis of both types. Article 368 provides for two types of amendments are as follow:- a. some provisions can be amended by a special majority of the parliament. b. some other provisions can be amended by a special majority of the Parliament with the satisfaction by half of the total states. Federal System with Unitary Bias a. Unitary Constitution included all power in a single government like as Central Government and state government depends on Centre Government. Features of Unitary Constituion – 1. Strong centre government 5 / 9

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2. Single citizenship 3. Emergency provisions 4. Integrated Judiciary 5. All India services 6. Flexibility of Constitution 7. Appointment of State Governor by the centre b. In Federal constitution power is divided in two government centre and state and both government function independently in their field. Features of Federal Constitution- 1. Division of powers 2. Supremacy of Constitution 3. Written Constitution 4. Independent judiciary 5. Irrevocability of Constitution 6. Rigidity of Constitution 7. Two types of Government Parliamentary form of Government The constitution of India has opted for the British parliamentary system of Govt instead of the American presidential system of Govt . the parliamentary system is predicated on the principle of cooperation and co-ordination between the legislative and executive organs while the presidential system is predicated on the doctrine of separation of powers between two organs. the parliamentary system is additionally referred to as the Westminster model of government responsible Government and cabinet government Features of Parliamentary System 1. Presence of nominal and real executive 2. Majority party rule 3. Collective responsibility of the executive to the legislature 4. Membership of the ministers in the legislature 5. The leadership of the prime minister or the chief minister 6 / 9

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6. Dissolution of the lower house Lok Sabha or assembly Synthesis of Parliamentary Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy The doctrine of the sovereignty of Parliament is associated with the British while the principle of judicial Supremacy has been taken from the American Supreme Court. the Indian parliamentary system differs from the British system. the scope of Judicial review power of the supreme court in India is narrower than the USA because American constitution provides for ‘due process of law’ against of procedures established by law therefore the farmers of Indian Constitution have preferred proper synthesis between British principle of parliamentary sovereignty and American principle of judicial Supremacy. Integrated and Independent Judiciary The supreme court stands at the top of the integrated judicial system in the country below it there is high court at the state level under a high court there is a hierarchy of subordinate court that is District Court and other Lower court. this single system of court enforces both the central laws as well as the state laws unlike in the USA where the federal law are enforced by the federal Judiciary and the State Laws are enforced by the state Judiciary. the supreme court is a federal court the highest court of appeal the guarantor the fundamental rights of the citizen and the guardian of the Constitution. hence the constitution has made various provision to ensure its independence – security of tenure of the judges fixed service condition for the judges all the expenses of the supreme court charged on the consolidated fund of India prohibition on the discussion on the conduct of judges in the legislature ban on practice after retirement power to punish for its contempt vested in the supreme court separation of Judiciary from the executive. Fundamental Rights Part III of the Indian Constitution guarantees six fundamental rights to all the citizens. 7 / 9

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1. Right to Equality under Article 14 – 18 2. right to freedom under article 19 – 22 3. right against exploitation under article 23 – 24 4. right to freedom of religion under article 25 – 28 5. cultural and educational right under article 29 – 30 6. right to constitutional remedies under article 32 They are justiciable in nature that is there enforceable by the courts for their violation. The aggrieved person can directly attend the supreme court which may issue the writs of habeas Corpus mandamus prohibition certiorari and quo-warranto for the restoration of his rights. However fundamental rights aren’t absolute and subject to reasonable restrictions. Further they’re not sacrosanct and are often curtailed or repealed by the Parliament through a Constitutional Amendment. They will even be suspended during the operation of a national emergency except the proper guaranteed by articles 20 and 21. Directive principles of states policy Enumerated in part IV of the Constitution . They can be classified into three broad categories socialist Gandhian and liberal intellectual. The directive principle are meant for promoting the ideal of social and economic democracy. They seek to determine a state in India however unlike the fundamental rights Directives aren’t justiciable nature that’s they’re not enforceable by the courts for their violation. Hence they impose a moral obligation on the state authorities for there application. In the Minerva Mills case 1980 Supreme Court held that the Indian constitution founded on the bedrock of the balance between the fundamental rights and Directive principles. Fundamental duties 8 / 9

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The original constitution didn’t provide for the fundamental duties of citizens were added during the operation of internal emergency in 1975 - 77 by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act 1976 on the advice of Swaran Singh committee 86th amendment act 2002 added another fundamental duty the part IV-A of the constitution which consists of just one article 51-A specifies the eleven fundamental duties viz. to respect the constitution national flag and Read more…. Also read about it: List of 12 schedules of Indian Constitution Article 20 of Indian Constitution 9 / 9

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