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See all Premium member Presentation Transcript Group Behavior, Definition and Classification Dr. A.K.Vij : Group Behavior, Definition and Classification Dr. A.K.Vij Groups- Definition and Classification : Groups- Definition and Classification Groups A group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and inter-dependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives Classification Formal Groups Command Groups Task Groups Informal Groups Interest Groups Friendship Group Formal Groups : Formal Groups Formal Groups A designated work group defined by the organization structure Command Group A manager and his immediate subordinates, Examples: Principal of the college and his faculty, Sales Manager and his group of sales persons Task Group Those working together to complete a job or task. Generally, multi-disciplinary groups where members represent their command group. Examples: Special study groups, project groups, ERP implementation task groups Matrix organization structure Informal Groups : Informal Groups Informal Groups A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact Interest Group Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each one is concerned. Examples: Individuals staying closer to each other and forming car pools, employees joining together to support an aggrieved colleague Friendship Group Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics. Examples: Ethnic groups, persons sharing interest in common sports or hobbies, family friends, etc. Why Do people Join Groups : Why Do people Join Groups Security Status Self-esteem Affiliation Power Goal Achievement Five stage Group Development Model : Five stage Group Development Model Forming The first stage in group development characterized by much uncertainty Storming The second stage in group development, characterized by intra-group conflict Norming The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness Performing The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional Adjourning The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance Stages of Group Development : Stages of Group Development Five stage Group Development Model : Five stage Group Development Model Model Critique Model is simplified depiction of what really happens- much more complex Under some conditions high level of conflict is conducive to high group performance, so groups in Stage 2 may outperform those in stages 3 and 4 Groups may not proceed sequentially from one stage to the next. Sometimes several stages may go on simultaneously- groups may be storming and performing at the same time Groups sometimes regress to previous stages Organizational context Case of 3 member cockpit crew in an airliner Speedy group development due to strong organizational context surrounding the tasks Context provided the rules, task definitions, information, and resources needed for the group to perform Group members did not have to develop plans, assign roles, allocate resources needed for the group to perform Gersick's Punctuated Equilibrium Model : Gersick's Punctuated Equilibrium Model Gersick's study of naturally occurring groups departs from the traditionally linear models of group development. Her punctuated equilibrium model (Gersick, 1988, 1989, 1991) suggests that groups develop through the sudden formation, maintenance, and sudden revision of a "framework for performance". This model describes the processes through which such frameworks are formed and revised and predicts both the timing of progress and when and how in their development groups are likely, or unlikely, to be influenced by their environments. The specific issues and activities that dominate groups' work are left unspecified in the model, since groups' historical paths are expected to vary. Her proposed model works in the following way. Punctuated Equilibrium Model : Punctuated Equilibrium Model Model working First meeting sets the group direction Framework of behavior patterns and assumptions through which through will approach the project emerges in this meeting Once set, the group’s direction becomes ‘written in stone’ and is unlikely to be re-examined throughout the first half of the group’s life Interesting discovery: transition occurs somewhere around the mid point of the time of first meeting and official deadline- like mid-life crisis Transition of Phase-I ends: concentrated burst of changes in which old patterns are dropped and new perspectives adopted Phase-II is a new equilibrium or period of inertia. Group executes plans created during the transition period Last meeting characterized by final burst of activity to finish the task The Punctuated Equilibrium Model : The Punctuated Equilibrium Model Sociometry : Sociometry Social Network Mapping or Organizational Network analysis An analytical technique for studying group interactions Sociogram graphically maps the preferred social actions obtained from interviews or questionnaires Questions like: With whom in your organization would you like to associate in the process of carrying out your job? Name organizational members with whom you would like to spend your free time Social networks are specific set of linkages among a defined set of individuals Clusters are groups that exist within social networks Prescribed clusters are formal groups such as departments, work teams, task forces, or committees Sociometry- Key Terms : Sociometry- Key Terms Social networks Specific set of linkages among a defined set of individuals Clusters Groups that exist within social networks Prescribed clusters Formal groups such as departments, work teams, task forces, or committees Emergent clusters Informal, unofficial groups Coalitions Clusters of individuals who come together to achieve a specific purpose Cliques Relatively permanent informal groupings that involve friendship Sociometry- Key Terms : Sociometry- Key Terms Stars Individuals with the maximum linkages in a network Liaisons Individuals who connect two or more clusters but are not members of any cluster Bridges Individuals who serve as linking pins by belonging to two or more clusters Isolates Individuals who are not connected to a social network Case: Sacramento Branch, Bank of America : Case: Sacramento Branch, Bank of America Four Formal Work Groups (Prescribed Clusters) Tellers (A,B,C, D,E,F) Loan processors (I,J,K) Administrative support personnel (G,H) Proposed Task force to improve customer service (A,H,I) Emergent Clusters (Based on sociometry study) Cluster1 (A,B,C,D,E,I) Cluster2(D,G,H) Questions: Identify Stars, Isolates, Liaisons and Bridges Suggest how this information can help the branch manager Socio-gram of the Sacramento Branch of Bank of America : Socio-gram of the Sacramento Branch of Bank of America Nature Of groups : TBL 18 Nature Of groups Groups have been studied for years, and it has been discovered that new ones go through various stages as they develop toward highly functioning teams. Some groups move easily through these stages, but others may get seriously stuck, unable to move forward. Groups Size : Groups Size Size does matter — at least as far as groups are concerned. In very small groups, the addition or loss of one member can of course make a radical difference to the group process. Larger groups need to be managed in quite different ways from smaller ones. So let's tackle this systematically: "Formal" features refer to necessary properties of the group, and are functions of the number of people: "Process" features are more empirically determined, and assume more importance as the size gets greater. Group Roles : Group Roles Roles: norms define group standards, while roles govern behavior Formal roles: assigned to establish order Informal roles Task roles: helps group accomplish goals Social roles: maintenance, concerned with relationships Task Roles In Groups : Task Roles In Groups Initiating: defining the problem, suggesting activities, assigning tasks. Information seeking: asking questions, seeking relevant data or views. Information sharing: providing data, offering opinions. Task Roles In Groups : Task Roles In Groups Summarizing: reviewing and integrating others’ points, checking for common understanding and readiness for action. Evaluating: assessing validity of assumptions, quality of information, reasonableness of recommendations. Guiding: keeping group on track. Relationship Roles In Groups : Relationship Roles In Groups Harmonizing: resolving interpersonal conflicts, reducing tension. Encouraging: supporting and praising others, showing appreciation for other's contributions, being warm and friendly. Gate-keeping: assuring even participation by all group members, making sure that everyone has a chance to be heard and that no individual dominates. Group Norms : Group Norms Norms: unstated rules Social norms Procedural norms Task norms Group Cohesiveness : Group Cohesiveness In a cohesive group, members consider the group to be more important than any individual in it. The advantages of a cohesive group are: Group quality standards can be developed; Group members work closely together so inhibitions caused by ignorance are reduced; Team members learn from each other and get to know each other’s work; Egoless programming where members strive to improve each other’s programs can be practised. Developing cohesiveness : Developing cohesiveness Cohesiveness is influenced by factors such as the organisational culture and the personalities in the group. Cohesiveness can be encouraged through Social events; Developing a group identity and territory; Explicit team-building activities. Openness with information is a simple way of ensuring all group members feel part of the group. Teams : Teams Definition A team is an energetic group of people, committed to achieving a common objective, who work well together, enjoy doing so, and produce high quality results. Team building is a process designed to create a work climate where members can achieve work satisfaction by directing their energy, creativity and imagination toward improving their work and work environment. Teamwork is characterized by the team’s willingness to examine it’s process so as to continuously improve itself as a team and as individuals. Differences Between Groups and Teams : Differences Between Groups and Teams Team members usually have a stronger sense of identification among themselves than group members do. Teams have common goals or tasks. Task interdependence typically is greater with teams than with groups. Teams have synergy that may or may not be existing amongst group members Effective Team Characteristics : Effective Team Characteristics Clear & Elevated Goal Collaborative Climate Competent Team Members External Support & Recognition Results - Driven Structure Principled Leadership Standards Of Excellence Unified Commitment Team Excellence Stages of Team Development : Stages of Team Development Stage 1 – Testing Team begins to form; people try to define their role Perceptions are fine-tuned to subtle, nonverbal messages Conventional means of getting involved, interacting Gradual development of personal exchanges, contact Question to be answered – How do I fit into this team? Do I want to be on this “bus”? Stage 2 – Infighting Sorting out of personal relationships Alliances are formed Leader is watched and evaluated by members Questions to be answered – Who controls the team? How is control exercised? What happens to “delinquents”? Who stays on the “bus”? Who gets off the “bus”? Stage 3 – Getting Organized People want to work together – commitment to the common goal Each member recognizes mutual support and interest Listening and respect increases Problems are handled creatively, flexibly, constructively Questions to be answered – How do we get the work done and get better? Where do we sit on the “bus”? Slide 31: Stage 4 – Mature Closeness Members develop rapport and closeness Members extend themselves for their colleagues Informality becomes the norm Individual roles, contributions are recognized, secured Observers are aware of the team’s closeness Questions to be answered – How do we stay together? Where do we go from here? Where else can the “bus” go? Team Benefits : Team Benefits Increased productivity, efficiency Increased trust, respect Better serve “customers” – internal and external Greater stability, security Achievement of business objectives and personal goals Willingness to take risks, try new things Greater comfort level Clarification of goals, roles, procedures, relationships Create collaboration and reduce competition Better able to handle change Ginnetts Team Effectiveness Leadership Model : Ginnetts Team Effectiveness Leadership Model EXECUTIVE FORUM .COM Robert Ginnnet : Robert Ginnnet TBL 34 Robert Ginnett is a senior partner with Impact Leadership Development Group, where he specializes in the leadership of high performance teams and organizations. Prior to joining Impact, Robert was a Senior Fellow with the Center for Creative Leadership. He is the developer of the Team Effectiveness Leadership Model, which provides the theoretical framework for many courses in organizations where teamwork is critical. This model also provides the foundation for Robert’s consulting skills in real-time team diagnostics and the identification of leverage points for change. In addition to his ongoing research concerning the leadership of high-performance teams and organizations, Robert serves as an adjunct lead instructor in CCL’s Leadership at the Peak course for CEOs & Presidents, ranked #1 in executive education by Bricker’s as reported in the Wall Street Journal. Robert works with clients to develop programs tailored specifically to their needs. These may include workshops designed to enhance individual and team effectiveness or may focus on diagnosis for large-scale interventions in the organizational setting. case : case Group Dynamics case is attached in the notes section TBL 35 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.