Group Behavior, Definition and Classification Dr. A.K.Vij : Group Behavior, Definition and Classification Dr. A.K.Vij Groups- Definition and Classification : Groups- Definition and Classification Groups
A group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and inter-dependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives
Friendship Group Formal Groups : Formal Groups Formal Groups
A designated work group defined by the organization structure
A manager and his immediate subordinates, Examples: Principal of the college and his faculty, Sales Manager and his group of sales persons
Those working together to complete a job or task. Generally, multi-disciplinary groups where members represent their command group. Examples: Special study groups, project groups, ERP implementation task groups
Matrix organization structure Informal Groups : Informal Groups Informal Groups
A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact
Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each one is concerned. Examples: Individuals staying closer to each other and forming car pools, employees joining together to support an aggrieved colleague
Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics. Examples: Ethnic groups, persons sharing interest in common sports or hobbies, family friends, etc. Why Do people Join Groups : Why Do people Join Groups Security
Power Goal Achievement Five stage Group Development Model : Five stage Group Development Model Forming
The first stage in group development characterized by much uncertainty
The second stage in group development, characterized by intra-group conflict
The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness
The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional
The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance Stages of Group Development : Stages of Group Development Five stage Group Development Model : Five stage Group Development Model Model Critique
Model is simplified depiction of what really happens- much more complex
Under some conditions high level of conflict is conducive to high group performance, so groups in Stage 2 may outperform those in stages 3 and 4
Groups may not proceed sequentially from one stage to the next.
Sometimes several stages may go on simultaneously- groups may be storming and performing at the same time
Groups sometimes regress to previous stages
Case of 3 member cockpit crew in an airliner
Speedy group development due to strong organizational context surrounding the tasks
Context provided the rules, task definitions, information, and resources needed for the group to perform
Group members did not have to develop plans, assign roles, allocate resources needed for the group to perform Gersick's Punctuated Equilibrium Model : Gersick's Punctuated Equilibrium Model Gersick's study of naturally occurring groups departs from the traditionally linear models of group development. Her punctuated equilibrium model (Gersick, 1988, 1989, 1991) suggests that groups develop through the sudden formation, maintenance, and sudden revision of a "framework for performance". This model describes the processes through which such frameworks are formed and revised and predicts both the timing of progress and when and how in their development groups are likely, or unlikely, to be influenced by their environments. The specific issues and activities that dominate groups' work are left unspecified in the model, since groups' historical paths are expected to vary. Her proposed model works in the following way. Punctuated Equilibrium Model : Punctuated Equilibrium Model Model working
First meeting sets the group direction
Framework of behavior patterns and assumptions through which through will approach the project emerges in this meeting
Once set, the group’s direction becomes ‘written in stone’ and is unlikely to be re-examined throughout the first half of the group’s life
Interesting discovery: transition occurs somewhere around the mid point of the time of first meeting and official deadline- like mid-life crisis
Transition of Phase-I ends: concentrated burst of changes in which old patterns are dropped and new perspectives adopted
Phase-II is a new equilibrium or period of inertia. Group executes plans created during the transition period
Last meeting characterized by final burst of activity to finish the task The Punctuated Equilibrium Model : The Punctuated Equilibrium Model Sociometry : Sociometry Social Network Mapping or Organizational Network analysis
An analytical technique for studying group interactions
Sociogram graphically maps the preferred social actions obtained from interviews or questionnaires
With whom in your organization would you like to associate in the process of carrying out your job?
Name organizational members with whom you would like to spend your free time
Social networks are specific set of linkages among a defined set of individuals
Clusters are groups that exist within social networks
Prescribed clusters are formal groups such as departments, work teams, task forces, or committees Sociometry- Key Terms : Sociometry- Key Terms Social networks
Specific set of linkages among a defined set of individuals
Groups that exist within social networks
Formal groups such as departments, work teams, task forces, or committees
Informal, unofficial groups
Clusters of individuals who come together to achieve a specific purpose
Relatively permanent informal groupings that involve friendship Sociometry- Key Terms : Sociometry- Key Terms Stars
Individuals with the maximum linkages in a network
Individuals who connect two or more clusters but are not members of any cluster
Individuals who serve as linking pins by belonging to two or more clusters
Individuals who are not connected to a social network Case: Sacramento Branch, Bank of America : Case: Sacramento Branch, Bank of America Four Formal Work Groups (Prescribed Clusters)
Tellers (A,B,C, D,E,F)
Loan processors (I,J,K)
Administrative support personnel (G,H)
Proposed Task force to improve customer service (A,H,I)
Emergent Clusters (Based on sociometry study)
Identify Stars, Isolates, Liaisons and Bridges
Suggest how this information can help the branch manager Socio-gram of the Sacramento Branch of Bank of America : Socio-gram of the Sacramento Branch of Bank of America Nature Of groups : TBL 18 Nature Of groups Groups have been studied for years, and it has been discovered that new ones go through various stages as they develop toward highly functioning teams. Some groups move easily through these stages, but others may get seriously stuck, unable to move forward. Groups Size : Groups Size Size does matter — at least as far as groups are concerned. In very small groups, the addition or loss of one member can of course make a radical difference to the group process. Larger groups need to be managed in quite different ways from smaller ones. So let's tackle this systematically: "Formal" features refer to necessary properties of the group, and are functions of the number of people: "Process" features are more empirically determined, and assume more importance as the size gets greater. Group Roles : Group Roles Roles: norms define group standards, while roles govern behavior
Formal roles: assigned to establish order
Task roles: helps group accomplish goals
Social roles: maintenance, concerned with relationships Task Roles In Groups : Task Roles In Groups Initiating: defining the problem, suggesting activities, assigning tasks.
Information seeking: asking questions, seeking relevant data or views.
Information sharing: providing data, offering opinions. Task Roles In Groups : Task Roles In Groups Summarizing: reviewing and integrating others’ points, checking for common understanding and readiness for action.
Evaluating: assessing validity of assumptions, quality of information, reasonableness of recommendations.
Guiding: keeping group on track. Relationship Roles In Groups : Relationship Roles In Groups Harmonizing: resolving interpersonal conflicts, reducing tension.
Encouraging: supporting and praising others, showing appreciation for other's contributions, being warm and friendly.
Gate-keeping: assuring even participation by all group members, making sure that everyone has a chance to be heard and that no individual dominates. Group Norms : Group Norms Norms: unstated rules
Task norms Group Cohesiveness : Group Cohesiveness In a cohesive group, members consider the group to be more important than any individual in it.
The advantages of a cohesive group are:
Group quality standards can be developed;
Group members work closely together so inhibitions caused by ignorance are reduced;
Team members learn from each other and get to know each other’s work;
Egoless programming where members strive to improve each other’s programs can be practised. Developing cohesiveness : Developing cohesiveness Cohesiveness is influenced by factors such as the organisational culture and the personalities in the group.
Cohesiveness can be encouraged through
Developing a group identity and territory;
Explicit team-building activities.
Openness with information is a simple way of ensuring all group members feel part of the group. Teams : Teams Definition
A team is an energetic group of people, committed to achieving a common objective, who work well together, enjoy doing so, and produce high quality results.
Team building is a process designed to create a work climate where members can achieve work satisfaction by directing their energy, creativity and imagination toward improving their work and work environment.
Teamwork is characterized by the team’s willingness to examine it’s process so as to continuously improve itself as a team and as individuals. Differences Between Groups and Teams : Differences Between Groups and Teams Team members usually have a stronger sense of identification among themselves than group members do.
Teams have common goals or tasks.
Task interdependence typically is greater with teams than with groups.
Teams have synergy that may or may not be existing amongst group members Effective Team Characteristics : Effective Team Characteristics Clear &
Recognition Results -
Excellence Stages of Team Development : Stages of Team Development Stage 1 – Testing
Team begins to form; people try to define their role
Perceptions are fine-tuned to subtle, nonverbal messages
Conventional means of getting involved, interacting
Gradual development of personal exchanges, contact
Question to be answered –
How do I fit into this team?
Do I want to be on this “bus”?
Stage 2 – Infighting
Sorting out of personal relationships
Alliances are formed
Leader is watched and evaluated by members
Questions to be answered –
Who controls the team?
How is control exercised?
What happens to “delinquents”?
Who stays on the “bus”? Who gets off the “bus”?
Stage 3 – Getting Organized
People want to work together – commitment to the common goal
Each member recognizes mutual support and interest
Listening and respect increases
Problems are handled creatively, flexibly, constructively
Questions to be answered –
How do we get the work done and get better?
Where do we sit on the “bus”? Slide 31: Stage 4 – Mature Closeness
Members develop rapport and closeness
Members extend themselves for their colleagues
Informality becomes the norm
Individual roles, contributions are recognized, secured
Observers are aware of the team’s closeness
Questions to be answered –
How do we stay together?
Where do we go from here?
Where else can the “bus” go? Team Benefits : Team Benefits Increased productivity, efficiency
Increased trust, respect
Better serve “customers” – internal and external
Greater stability, security
Achievement of business objectives and personal goals
Willingness to take risks, try new things
Greater comfort level
Clarification of goals, roles, procedures, relationships
Create collaboration and reduce competition
Better able to handle change Ginnetts Team Effectiveness Leadership Model : Ginnetts Team Effectiveness Leadership Model EXECUTIVE FORUM .COM Robert Ginnnet : Robert Ginnnet TBL 34 Robert Ginnett is a senior partner with Impact Leadership Development Group, where he specializes in the leadership of high performance teams and organizations. Prior to joining Impact, Robert was a Senior Fellow with the Center for Creative Leadership.
He is the developer of the Team Effectiveness Leadership Model, which provides the theoretical framework for many courses in organizations where teamwork is critical. This model also provides the foundation for Robert’s consulting skills in real-time team diagnostics and the identification of leverage points for change.
In addition to his ongoing research concerning the leadership of high-performance teams and organizations, Robert serves as an adjunct lead instructor in CCL’s Leadership at the Peak course for CEOs & Presidents, ranked #1 in executive education by Bricker’s as reported in the Wall Street Journal. Robert works with clients to develop programs tailored specifically to their needs. These may include workshops designed to enhance individual and team effectiveness or may focus on diagnosis for large-scale interventions in the organizational setting. case : case Group Dynamics
case is attached in the notes section TBL 35