Isometric projections

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Isometric Projections:

Isometric Projections Hareesha N G Dept of Aeronautical Engg Dayananda Sagar College of Engg Bangalore-78 3/27/2012 1 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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L D H 3-D DRAWINGS CAN BE DRAWN IN NUMEROUS WAYS AS SHOWN BELOW. ALL THESE DRAWINGS MAY BE CALLED 3-DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS, OR PHOTOGRAPHIC OR PICTORIAL DRAWINGS. HERE NO SPECIFIC RELATION AMONG H, L & D AXES IS MENTAINED. L D H NOW OBSERVE BELOW GIVEN DRAWINGS. ONE CAN NOTE SPECIFIC INCLINATION AMONG H, L & D AXES. ISO MEANS SAME, SIMILAR OR EQUAL . HERE ONE CAN FIND EDUAL INCLINATION AMONG H, L & D AXES. EACH IS 120 0 INCLINED WITH OTHER TWO. HENCE IT IS CALLED ISOMETRIC DRAWING H L D IT IS A TYPE OF PICTORIAL PROJECTION IN WHICH ALL THREE DIMENSIONS OF AN OBJECT ARE SHOWN IN ONE VIEW AND IF REQUIRED, THEIR ACTUAL SIZES CAN BE MEASURED DIRECTLY FROM IT. IN THIS 3-D DRAWING OF AN OBJECT, ALL THREE DIMENSIONAL AXES ARE MENTAINED AT EQUAL INCLINATIONS WITH EACH OTHER.( 120 0 ) PURPOSE OF ISOMETRIC DRAWING IS TO UNDERSTAND OVERALL SHAPE, SIZE & APPEARANCE OF AN OBJECT PRIOR TO IT’S PRODUCTION. ISOMETRIC DRAWING TYPICAL CONDITION. 3/27/2012 2 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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ISOMETRIC AXES, LINES AND PLANES : The three lines AL, AD and AH, meeting at point A and making 120 0 angles with each other are termed Isometric Axes. The lines parallel to these axes are called Isometric Lines . The planes representing the faces of of the cube as well as other planes parallel to these planes are called Isometric Planes . ISOMETRIC SCALE: When one holds the object in such a way that all three dimensions are visible then in the process all dimensions become proportionally inclined to observer’s eye sight and hence appear apparent in lengths. This reduction is 0.815 or 9 / 11 ( approx.) It forms a reducing scale which Is used to draw isometric drawings and is called Isometric scale. In practice, while drawing isometric projection, it is necessary to convert true lengths into isometric lengths for measuring and marking the sizes. This is conveniently done by constructing an isometric scale as described on next page. L D H A SOME IMPORTANT TERMS: 3/27/2012 3 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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ISOMETRIC VIEW ISOMETRIC PROJECTION D L H L D H TYPES OF ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS Drawn by using Isometric scale ( Reduced dimensions ) Drawn by using True scale ( True dimensions ) 45 0 30 0 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 TRUE LENGTHS ISOM. LENGTHS Isometric scale [ Line AC ] required for Isometric Projection A B C D CONSTRUCTION OF ISOM.SCALE. From point A, with line AB draw 30 0 and 45 0 inclined lines AC & AD resp on AD. Mark divisions of true length and from each division-point draw vertical lines upto AC line. The divisions thus obtained on AC give lengths on isometric scale. 3/27/2012 4 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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SHAPE Isometric view if the Shape is F.V. or T.V. TRIANGLE A B RECTANGLE D C H L D A B C D A B D C L H L D L 1 2 3 A B 3 1 2 A B 3 1 2 A B H L D L 1 2 3 4 PENTAGON A B C D E 1 2 3 4 A B C D E 1 2 3 4 A B C D E ISOMETRIC OF PLANE FIGURES AS THESE ALL ARE 2-D FIGURES WE REQUIRE ONLY TWO ISOMETRIC AXES. IF THE FIGURE IS FRONT VIEW, H & L AXES ARE REQUIRED. IF THE FIGURE IS TOP VIEW, D & L AXES ARE REQUIRED. Shapes containing Inclined lines should be enclosed in a rectangle as shown. Then first draw isom. of that rectangle and then inscribe that shape as it is. 1 3/27/2012 5 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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1 4 2 3 A B D C 1 4 2 3 A B D C Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF A CIRCLE IF IT IS A TV OR FV. FIRST ENCLOSE IT IN A SQUARE. IT’S ISOMETRIC IS A RHOMBUS WITH D & L AXES FOR TOP VIEW. THEN USE H & L AXES FOR ISOMETRIC WHEN IT IS FRONT VIEW. FOR CONSTRUCTION USE RHOMBUS METHOD SHOWN HERE. STUDY IT. 2 3/27/2012 6 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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25 R 100 MM 50 MM Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF THE FIGURE SHOWN WITH DIMENTIONS (ON RIGHT SIDE) CONSIDERING IT FIRST AS F.V. AND THEN T.V. IF TOP VIEW IF FRONT VIEW 3 3/27/2012 7 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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CIRCLE HEXAGON SEMI CIRCLE ISOMETRIC OF PLANE FIGURES AS THESE ALL ARE 2-D FIGURES WE REQUIRE ONLY TWO ISOMETRIC AXES. IF THE FIGURE IS FRONT VIEW, H & L AXES ARE REQUIRED. IF THE FIGURE IS TOP VIEW, D & L AXES ARE REQUIRED. SHAPE IF F.V. IF T.V. For Isometric of Circle/Semicircle use Rhombus method. Construct Rhombus of sides equal to Diameter of circle always. ( Ref. topic ENGG. CURVES.) For Isometric of Circle/Semicircle use Rhombus method. Construct it of sides equal to diameter of circle always. ( Ref. Previous two pages.) 4 3/27/2012 8 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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D L 1 2 3 4 A B C D E D L 1 2 3 4 A B C D E ISOMETRIC VIEW OF PENTAGONAL PYRAMID STANDING ON H.P. (Height is added from center of pentagon) ISOMETRIC VIEW OF BASE OF PENTAGONAL PYRAMID STANDING ON H.P. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 5 3/27/2012 9 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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H L 1 2 3 4 A B C D E Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS ISOMETRIC VIEW OF PENTAGONALL PRISM LYING ON H.P. ISOMETRIC VIEW OF HEXAGONAL PRISM STANDING ON H.P. 6 3/27/2012 10 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS CYLINDER LYING ON H.P. CYLINDER STANDING ON H.P. 7 3/27/2012 11 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS HALF CYLINDER LYING ON H.P. ( with flat face // to H.P.) HALF CYLINDER STANDING ON H.P. ( ON IT’S SEMICIRCULAR BASE) 8 3/27/2012 12 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS ISOMETRIC VIEW OF A FRUSTOM OF SQUARE PYRAMID STANDING ON H.P. ON IT’S LARGER BASE. 40 20 60 X Y FV TV 9 3/27/2012 13 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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ISOMETRIC VIEW OF FRUSTOM OF PENTAGONAL PYRAMID 40 20 60 STUDY ILLUSTRATION 1 2 3 4 y A B C D E 40 20 60 x FV TV PROJECTIONS OF FRUSTOM OF PENTAGONAL PYRAMID ARE GIVEN. DRAW IT’S ISOMETRIC VIEW. SOLUTION STEPS: FIRST DRAW ISOMETRIC OF IT’S BASE. THEN DRAWSAME SHAPE AS TOP, 60 MM ABOVE THE BASE PENTAGON CENTER. THEN REDUCE THE TOP TO 20 MM SIDES AND JOIN WITH THE PROPER BASE CORNERS. 10 3/27/2012 14 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS ISOMETRIC VIEW OF A FRUSTOM OF CONE STANDING ON H.P. ON IT’S LARGER BASE. FV TV 40 20 60 X Y 11 3/27/2012 15 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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50 Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS PROBLEM: A SQUARE PYRAMID OF 30 MM BASE SIDES AND 50 MM LONG AXIS, IS CENTRALLY PLACED ON THE TOP OF A CUBE OF 50 MM LONG EDGES.DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF THE PAIR. 50 30 12 3/27/2012 16 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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a b c o p p a b c o Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS PROBLEM: A TRIANGULAR PYRAMID OF 30 MM BASE SIDES AND 50 MM LONG AXIS, IS CENTRALLY PLACED ON THE TOP OF A CUBE OF 50 MM LONG EDGES. DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF THE PAIR. SOLUTION HINTS. TO DRAW ISOMETRIC OF A CUBE IS SIMPLE. DRAW IT AS USUAL. BUT FOR PYRAMID AS IT’S BASE IS AN EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE, IT CAN NOT BE DRAWN DIRECTLY.SUPPORT OF IT’S TV IS REQUIRED . SO DRAW TRIANGLE AS A TV, SEPARATELY AND NAME VARIOUS POINTS AS SHOWN . AFTER THIS PLACE IT ON THE TOP OF CUBE AS SHOWN. THEN ADD HEIGHT FROM IT’S CENTER AND COMPLETE IT’S ISOMETRIC AS SHOWN. 13 3/27/2012 17 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 50 50 30 D 30 10 30 + FV TV PROBLEM: A SQUARE PLATE IS PIERCED THROUGH CENTRALLY BY A CYLINDER WHICH COMES OUT EQUALLY FROM BOTH FACES OF PLATE. IT’S FV & TV ARE SHOWN. DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW. 14 3/27/2012 18 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 30 10 30 60 D 40 SQUARE FV TV PROBLEM: A CIRCULAR PLATE IS PIERCED THROUGH CENTRALLY BY A SQUARE PYRAMID WHICH COMES OUT EQUALLY FROM BOTH FACES OF PLATE. IT’S FV & TV ARE SHOWN. DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW. 15 3/27/2012 19 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS X Y 30 D 50 D 10 40 20 40 FV TV F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. 16 3/27/2012 20 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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P r R R r P C C = Center of Sphere. P = Point of contact R = True Radius of Sphere r = Isometric Radius. R r Iso-Direction P r R C r r ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS OF SPHERE & HEMISPHERE r R 45 0 30 0 TO DRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTION OF A HEMISPHERE TO DRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTION OF A SPHERE 1. FIRST DRAW ISOMETRIC OF SQUARE PLATE . 2. LOCATE IT’S CENTER. NAME IT P. 3. FROM PDRAW VERTICAL LINE UPWARD, LENGTH ‘ r mm’ AND LOCATE CENTER OF SPHERE “C” 4. ‘C’ AS CENTER, WITH RADIUS ‘R’ DRAW CIRCLE. THIS IS ISOMETRIC PROJECTION OF A SPHERE. Adopt same procedure. Draw lower semicircle only. Then around ‘C’ construct Rhombus of Sides equal to Isometric Diameter. For this use iso-scale. Then construct ellipse in this Rhombus as usual And Complete Isometric-Projection of Hemi-sphere. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS Isom. Scale 17 3/27/2012 21 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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P r R r r 50 D 30 D 50 D 50 r R 45 0 30 0 PROBLEM: A HEMI-SPHERE IS CENTRALLY PLACED ON THE TOP OF A FRUSTOM OF CONE. DRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS OF THE ASSEMBLY. FIRST CONSTRUCT ISOMETRIC SCALE. USE THIS SCALE FOR ALL DIMENSIONS IN THIS PROBLEM. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 18 3/27/2012 22 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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a b c d 1 2 3 4 o 1’ 4’ 3’ 2’ 1 2 4 3 X Y Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS A SQUARE PYRAMID OF 40 MM BASE SIDES AND 60 MM AXIS IS CUT BY AN INCLINED SECTION PLANE THROUGH THE MID POINT OF AXIS AS SHOWN.DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF SECTION OF PYRAMID. 19 3/27/2012 23 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS X Y 50 20 25 25 20 O O F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. 20 3/27/2012 24 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS x y FV TV 35 35 10 30 20 10 40 70 O O F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. 21 3/27/2012 25 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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x y FV SV TV Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 10 40 60 60 40 ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. 24 3/27/2012 26 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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x y FV SV TV ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL 40 60 60 40 10 F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 25 3/27/2012 27 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW TOP VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW x y 20 20 20 50 20 20 20 20 30 O O F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 26 3/27/2012 28 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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40 20 30 SQUARE 20 50 60 30 10 F.V. S.V. O O F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 27 3/27/2012 29 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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40 10 50 80 10 30 D 45 FV TV O O F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 28 3/27/2012 30 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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O FV TV X Y O 40 10 25 25 30 R 10 100 10 30 10 20 D F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 29 3/27/2012 31 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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O O 10 30 50 10 35 20 D 30 D 60 D FV TV X Y RECT. SLOT F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 30 3/27/2012 32 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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O 10 O 40 25 15 25 25 25 25 80 10 F.V. S.V. F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 31 3/27/2012 33 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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O 45 0 X TV FV Y 30 D 30 40 40 40 15 O F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 32 3/27/2012 34 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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O O 20 20 15 30 60 30 20 20 40 100 50 HEX PART F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 33 3/27/2012 35 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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O O 10 10 30 10 30 40 20 80 30 F.V. T.V. X Y F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 34 3/27/2012 36 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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FV LSV X Y 10 O FV LSV X Y 10 10 15 25 25 10 50 O F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 35 36 NOTE THE SMALL CHZNGE IN 2 ND FV & SV. DRAW ISOMETRIC ACCORDINGLY. 3/27/2012 37 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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Y X F.V. LEFT S.V. 30 20 20 10 15 15 15 30 50 10 15 O O F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 37 3/27/2012 38 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru

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30 40 10 60 30 40 F.V. S.V. O O F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it’s isometric view. Z STUDY ILLUSTRATIONS 38 3/27/2012 39 Hareesha N G, DSCE, Bengaluru