Digital Mapping

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Ananta rao Duppala

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DIGITAL MAPPING:

DIGITAL MAPPING BY ANANTA RAO DUPPALA M.A(Eng), M.A B.Ed , PGDCA,DCA,DITP, ADPF,AITAA,CGWBT&A, CLISc (SPECIAL INSTRUCTOR IN GIS AND GEO WEB MGMT & TECH SYS)

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION COMPUTER MAPPING TECHNOLOGY INCLUDING COMPUTER ASSISTED MAP MAKING, DIGITAL CARTOGRAPHIC DATA CREATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT IS GETTING MORE AND MORE POPULAR IN THE WORLD IN THESE A FEW YEARS. ESPECIALLY, "DIGITAL MAPPING" TECHNOLOGY WHICH IS TO CREATE DIGITAL CARTOGRAPHIC DATA THROUGH PHOTOGRAMMETRIC PROCESSES HAS RAPIDLY BECOME THE CENTER OF ATTENTION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC UTILITY ENTERPRISES BECAUSE OF ITS HIGH ACCURACY AND USEFULNESS OF TRUE POSITION DATA.

INTRODUCTION:

INTRODUCTION PEOPLE DREW AND COLORED THEIR MAPS BY HAND. ANALYZING DATA AND CREATING THE RESULTING MAPS WAS SLOW AND LABOR INTENSIVE. DIGITAL MAPS, EVER-FALLING COST OF PROCESSING POWER AND STORAGE, HAVE OPENED UP A WHOLE NEW RANGE OF POSSIBILITIES. WITH THE CLICK OF A MOUSE OR A FEW LINES OF CODE, YOUR COMPUTER ANALYZES, DRAWS, AND COLOR-THEMES YOUR MAP DATA. FROM THE GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) IN YOUR CAR TO THE WEB SITE DISPLAYING LOCAL BUS ROUTES, DIGITAL MAPPING HAS GONE MAINSTREAM. OF COURSE, LEARNING TO PRODUCE DIGITAL MAPS REQUIRES SOME EFFORT. MAP DATA CAN BE USED INCORRECTLY, RESULTING IN MAPS WITH ERRORS OR MISLEADING CONTENT. DIGITAL MAPPING DOESN'T GUARANTEE QUALITY OR ETHICS, JUST LIKE CONVENTIONAL MAPPING.

WHAT IS DIGITAL MAPPING:

WHAT IS DIGITAL MAPPING DIGITAL MAPPING   (ALSO CALLED  DIGITAL  CARTOGRAPHY) IS THE PROCESS BY WHICH A COLLECTION OF DATA IS COMPILED AND FORMATTED INTO A VIRTUAL IMAGE. THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF THIS TECHNOLOGY IS TO PRODUCE  MAPS  THAT GIVE ACCURATE REPRESENTATIONS OF A PARTICULAR AREA, DETAILING MAJOR ROAD ARTERIES AND OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST.

HISTORY:

HISTORY THE ROOTS OF DIGITAL MAPPING LIE WITHIN TRADITIONAL PAPER MAPS SUCH AS THE THOMAS GUIDE. PAPER MAPS PROVIDE BASIC LANDSCAPES SIMILAR TO DIGITIZED ROAD MAPS, YET ARE OFTEN CUMBERSOME, COVER ONLY A DESIGNATED AREA, AND LACK MANY SPECIFIC DETAILS SUCH AS ROAD BLOCKS. IN ADDITION, THERE IS NO WAY TO “UPDATE” A PAPER MAP EXCEPT TO OBTAIN A NEW VERSION. ON THE OTHER HAND, DIGITAL MAPS, IN MANY CASES, CAN BE UPDATED THROUGH SYNCHRONIZATION WITH UPDATES FROM MOTHER SERVERS.

FUNCTIONS:

FUNCTIONS COMPUTER APPLICATIONS COMPUTER PROGRAMS AND APPLICATIONS SUCH AS GOOGLE EARTH AND GOOGLE MAPS PROVIDE MAP VIEWS FROM SPACE AND STREET LEVEL OF MUCH OF THE WORLD. USED PRIMARILY FOR RECREATIONAL USE, GOOGLE EARTH PROVIDES DIGITAL MAPPING IN PERSONAL APPLICATIONS, SUCH AS TRACKING DISTANCES OR FINDING LOCATIONS.

FUNCTIONS:

FUNCTIONS SCIENTIFIC APPLICATIONS THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOBILE COMPUTING (PDAS, TABLET PCS, LAPTOPS, ETC.) HAS RECENTLY (SINCE ABOUT 2000) SPURRED THE USE OF DIGITAL MAPPING IN THE SCIENCES AND APPLIED SCIENCES. AS OF 2009, SCIENCE FIELDS THAT USE DIGITAL MAPPING TECHNOLOGY INCLUDE GEOLOGY (SEE DIGITAL GEOLOGIC MAPPING), ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURE, LAND SURVEYING, MINING, FORESTRY,ENVIRONMENTAL, AND ARCHAEOLOGY.

FUNCTIONS:

FUNCTIONS GPS NAVIGATION SYSTEMS THE PRINCIPLE USE BY WHICH DIGITAL MAPPING HAS GROWN IN THE PAST DECADE HAS BEEN ITS CONNECTION TO GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) TECHNOLOGY. GPS IS THE FOUNDATION BEHIND DIGITAL MAPPING NAVIGATION SYSTEMS.

HOW IT WORKS:

HOW IT WORKS THE COORDINATES AND POSITION AS WELL AS ATOMIC TIME OBTAINED BY A TERRESTRIAL GPS RECEIVER FROM GPS SATELLITES ORBITING EARTH INTERACT TOGETHER TO PROVIDE THE DIGITAL MAPPING PROGRAMMING WITH POINTS OF ORIGIN IN ADDITION TO THE DESTINATION POINTS NEEDED TO CALCULATE DISTANCE. THIS INFORMATION IS THEN ANALYZED AND COMPILED TO CREATE A MAP THAT PROVIDES THE EASIEST AND MOST EFFICIENT WAY TO REACH A DESTINATION.

HOW IT WORKS:

HOW IT WORKS MORE TECHNICALLY SPEAKING, THE DEVICE OPERATES IN THE FOLLOWING MANNER:- GPS RECEIVERS COLLECT DATA FROM AT LEAST FOUR GPS SATELLITES ORBITING THE EARTH, CALCULATING POSITION IN THREE DIMENSIONS. THE GPS RECEIVER THEN UTILIZES POSITION TO PROVIDE GPS COORDINATES, OR EXACT POINTS OF LATITUDINAL AND LONGITUDINAL DIRECTION FROM GPS SATELLITES.

HOW IT WORKS:

HOW IT WORKS THE POINTS, OR COORDINATES, OUTPUT AN ACCURATE RANGE BETWEEN APPROXIMATELY "10-20 METERS" OF THE ACTUAL LOCATION. THE BEGINNING POINT, ENTERED VIA GPS COORDINATES, AND THE ENDING POINT, (ADDRESS OR COORDINATES) INPUT BY THE USER, ARE THEN ENTERED INTO THE DIGITAL MAPPING SOFTWARE. THE MAPPING SOFTWARE OUTPUTS A REAL-TIME VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF THE ROUTE. THE MAP THEN MOVES ALONG THE PATH OF THE DRIVER. IF THE DRIVER DRIFTS FROM THE DESIGNATED ROUTE, THE NAVIGATION SYSTEM WILL USE THE CURRENT COORDINATES TO RECALCULATE A ROUTE TO THE DESTINATION LOCATION.

STANDARD PROCEDURE OF DIGITAL MAPPING :

STANDARD PROCEDURE OF DIGITAL MAPPING PLANNING AND PREPARATION CONTROL POINT SURVEY ANTI-AIRPHOTO SIGNAL SETTING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHING PRICKING FIELD AFFIRMATION AERIAL TRIANGULATION DIGITAL DATA ACQUISITION THROUGH STEREO PLOTTING

STANDARD PROCEDURE OF DIGITAL MAPPING :

STANDARD PROCEDURE OF DIGITAL MAPPING FIELD TERRAIN SURVEY DATA EDITION AND COMPILATION SUPPLEMENTAL FIELD SURVEY CREATION OF STANDARD EXCHANGE FILE REVISION OF STANDARD EXCHANGE FILE ARRANGEMENT OF RESULTS AND PRODUCTS THE FOLLOWING PROCESSES ARE DETERMINED TO BE OPTIONAL. CREATION OF DATA MANAGEMENT FILE DRAWING OUT MAPS CREATION OF STRUCTURIZED DATA FILE

IMPORTANCE OF DIGITAL MAPS:

IMPORTANCE OF DIGITAL MAPS THE DIGITAL MAP CAN NOT ONLY BE USED TO FIND YOUR LOCATION BUT YOU CAN FIND ANYONE ELSE’S LOCATION AS WELL. TRUCKS AND SCHOOL BUSES ARE FITTED WITH GPRS DEVISES AND THEIR LOCATION IS TRACKED WITH THE HELP OF A DIGITAL MAP. DIGITAL MAPS CAN BE VERY USEFUL FOR THOSE WHO ARE TRAVELLING IN UNKNOWN PLACES. IF YOU ARE VISITING A NEW PLACE OR COUNTRY THEN FINDING YOUR WAY CAN BE A BIG PROBLEM. HOWEVER ON THE OTHER HAND IF YOU HAVE A DIGITAL MAP IN YOUR PHONE OR IN YOUR CAR THEN YOU CAN EASILY TAKE THE SHORTEST ROUTE POSSIBLE, WITHOUT WASTING TOO MUCH TIME OR MONEY.

ADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL MAPS:

ADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL MAPS MAP REVISIONS WILL BE FASTER AND EASIER. MAPS CAN BE GENERATED BY LAYERS. SO THAT ONE CAN USE THE REQUIRED LAYER ONLY. COMMUNITIES CAN INCORPORATE THE DIGITAL FLOOD MAP DATA WITH LOCAL DATA, SUCH AS PARCEL DATA. LETTERS OF MAP CHANGE (LOMCS) CAN BE INCORPORATED ON THE DIGITAL MAP ON A MORE FREQUENT BASIS THAN IN THE PAST. ONCE INCORPORATED, THE COMMUNITY MAY PRINT THE REVISED MAP RATHER THAN HAVE SEPARATE PAGES OF COPIED LOMCS. GREAT USE IN DIGITAL GOVERNANCE.

DISADVANTAGES:

DISADVANTAGES LEARNING TO PRODUCE DIGITAL MAPS REQUIRES SOME EFFORT. MAP DATA CAN BE USED INCORRECTLY, RESULTING IN MAPS WITH ERRORS OR MISLEADING CONTENT. DIGITAL MAPPING DOESN'T GUARANTEE QUALITY OR ETHICS, JUST LIKE CONVENTIONAL MAPPING. MORE EXPENSIVE METHOD. NEED SKILLED PEOPLE AND INFRASTRUCTURE. REQUIRED SECURITY CONCIOUS NESS

TECHNICAL LIMITATIONS:

TECHNICAL LIMITATIONS RELATIVE LOSS OF RESOLUTION WHERE THE RESOLUTION IS ACTUALLY DETERMINED BY THE CELL SIZE SELECTED. LINEAR FEATURES ARE RATHER DIFFICULT TO REPRESENT, AND ASSOCIATED LARGE AMOUNTS OF ATTRIBUTE DATA CAN BE SLOW TO PROCESS. SOME DATA INTEGRITY OR DATA CORRUPTION CAN ALSO OCCUR AS A RESULT OF DATA CONVERSION FROM VECTOR TO RASTER FORMS, WHICH WILL BE EXPRESSED IN THE END PRODUCT, AND UNFORTUNATELY RASTER STRUCTURES OFTEN PRODUCE LOWER QUALITY IMAGERY THAT DOES NOT CONFORM TO MANY OF THE NEEDS OF CARTOGRAPHY .

DIGITAL MAPPING IN INDIA:

DIGITAL MAPPING IN INDIA ESTABLISHED DIGITAL MAPPING CENTRE IN DEHRADUN ( UK). WORKS UNDER MIN OF SCI & TECH. INTEGRATED WITH IIRS & ISRO. ESTABLISHED A WEBSITE NAMED AS “BHUVAN” TO ASSIST IN GOOD GOVERNANCE (DISASTER MGMT). RESEARCH IS UNDER PROGRESS. SOUND BUDGET ALLOWCATIONS WERE DONE. INTRODUCED IN INDIAN ARMY MAP READING TRAINING.

CONCLUSION:

CONCLUSION DIGITAL MAPPING IS QUITE YOUNG TECHNOLOGY AND STILL HAVE BEEN DEVELOPING. THE STANDARDIZATION CAN HELP FURTHER DEVELOPING AND POPULARIZING THIS NEW TECHNOLOGY. IT WOULD BE DIFFICULT TO GRANT SUFFICIENT FUNDS TO EXPAND THIS TECHNOLOGY INTO ALL DEPARTMENTS. HOWEVER, COUNTRIES LIKE INDIA ARE PRESENTLY FOCUSING TO DEVELOP THIS TECHNOLOGY AND GET ASSISTANCE IN GOVERNANCE.

THANK YOU:

THANK YOU

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