GIS Education and Basics

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Ananta Rao Duppala

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INTRODUCTION TO GIS:

INTRODUCTION TO GIS BY ANANTA RAO DUPPALA Instr ( Spl ) anantarao.27@gmail.com

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FEW FRQUENT QUESTIONS IN GENERAL WHICH ISTHE SHORTEST ROUTE FROM POINT ‘A’ TO POINT ‘B’? WHICH IS THE ALTERNATIVE ROUTE IF SHORTEST ROUTE IS NOT AVAILABLE? IS AN OBJECT VISIBLE FROM AN ANOTHER OBJECT? WHAT KIND OF TERRAIN WE WILL FACE WHILE ADVANCING TO OBJECTIVE? WHAT ARE THE DEMOGRAPHIC DETAILS OF AOR (AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY)? anantarao.27@gmail.com

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WHAT WOULD WE DO? anantarao.27@gmail.com

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LET US SEE ….. ASK A MAP STUDY IT ANALYSE THE INFO FIND OUT THE SOLUTION(S) CONFORM THE INPUTS BY RECCE . anantarao.27@gmail.com

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RESULTS? TIME TAKING PROCESS MORE HUMAN EFFORT DIFFICULT ANALYSIS ETC., ETC., anantarao.27@gmail.com

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HOW CAN WE OVER COME? THE ANSWER MAY BE GIS OPEN GIS APPLICATION FIRE THE QUERIES ON GIS AND GET THE ANSWERS. VISUALIZE THE AREA IN 3D. CONFORM THE INPUTS BY RECCE . GET REQD INFO FOR DSS DSS (DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM) MAY BE CALLED AS GIS anantarao.27@gmail.com

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GLOBAL TO LOCAL SCALE OF GIS DATA anantarao.27@gmail.com

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WHAT IS GIS? anantarao.27@gmail.com

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What is GIS? A Computer based system to :- Store Retrieve Manage Display & Analyze data which are spatially referenced to earth. Capture anantarao.27@gmail.com

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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS) ARE COMPUTERIZED SYSTEMS DESIGNED FOR CAPTURE, STORAGE, RETRIEVAL AND ANALYSIS OF GEOGRAPHICALLY REFERENCED DATA. FORMAL DEFINITION anantarao.27@gmail.com

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WHAT IS not GIS? GPS – GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM A STATIC MAP – PAPER OR DIGITAL MAPS ARE OFTEN A “PRODUCT” OF A GIS A WAY TO VISUALIZE THE ANALYSIS A SOFTWARE PACKAGE anantarao.27@gmail.com

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LOCATION WHERE IS IT…? CONDITION WHAT IS THE TYPE…? TREND WHAT HAS CHANGED…? ROUTING WHICH IS THE BEST WAY…? PATTERN WHAT IS THE PATTERN…? MODELING WHAT IF…? CAPABILITY OF GIS anantarao.27@gmail.com

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GIS STORES RELATED GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES IN SEPARATE COLLECTION S OF FILES CALLED MAP LAYERS. MAP LAYERS CAN BE REUSED EASILY AND ASSEMBLED INTO ANY NUMBER OF MAP COMPOSITIONS AND OVERLAID FOR ANALYSIS. UNIQUE CAPABILITY OF GIS anantarao.27@gmail.com

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LAYERS OF GIS anantarao.27@gmail.com Topography Hydrography Census Highways Places

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TYPES OF DATA SPATIAL DATA DATA USED IN GIS A SPATIAL DATA VECTOR RASTER anantarao.27@gmail.com

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16 Placename Grid co-ordinate Postcode Distance & bearing Description Latitude / Longitude WHAT MAKES DATA SPATIAL? anantarao.27@gmail.com

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CHARACTERISTICS OF SPATIAL DATA GEOMETRY THE SHAPE OF A BUILDING OR COUNTY THE COURSE OF A RIVER, THE ROUTE OF A ROAD THE SHAPE OF THE LANDSCAPE, RELIEF anantarao.27@gmail.com

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LOCATION DESCRIPTION: KINGSTON UNIVERSITY POST CODE: KT1 2EE GRID REFERENCE: 518106.72 168530.37 (West, North) LATITUDE/LONGITUDE: 0° 21’ 55.38”W, 49° 36’ 17.62”N CHARACTERISTICS OF SPATIAL DATA anantarao.27@gmail.com

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CHARACTERISTICS OF SPATIAL DATA TOPOLOGY CONNECTED TO WITHIN ADJACENT TO NORTH OF . . . WITHIN THE HISAR CANTT AREA OPPOSITE TCP II GATE NORTH OF HISAR RAILWAY STATION ADJACENT TO DELHI - HISAR NATIONAL HIGHWAY anantarao.27@gmail.com

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DATA MODELS VECTOR MODEL DISCRETE REPRESENTATIONS OF REALITY RASTER MODEL USE SQUARE CELLS TO MODEL REALITY X,Y Rows Columns X,Y X,Y X,Y X,Y anantarao.27@gmail.com

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DATA MODELS anantarao.27@gmail.com

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DATA FORMATS anantarao.27@gmail.com RASTER DATA : TIFF (200DPI) VECTOR DATA : DVD AND DGN ELEVATION DATA DTED - 1 (1:250000) DTED - 2 (1:50000) VECTOR FORMATS DGN (BENTLY/INTERGRAPH) PIX ( GEOMETICA) DXF (AUTO CAD) SHP (ARCINFO/ARCGIS) DVD (SOI) RASTER FORMATS IMG (ERDAS) TIFF DTED (SOI) COT JPEF

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HOW CAN WE MAKE DATA MODELING? anantarao.27@gmail.com

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EXAMINE THIS PIC FIND OUT THE FEATURES YOU HAVE IDENTIFIED anantarao.27@gmail.com

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STEP 1 FEATURES BUILDINGS ROAD CENTRELINES LAMP COLUMNS GAS PIPES CTV ACCESS COVERS ROAD SURFACES anantarao.27@gmail.com

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STEP 2 POINT LINE POLYGON anantarao.27@gmail.com

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27 Feature : Building Object : Polygon Entity : Tourist Information Bureau STEP 3 anantarao.27@gmail.com

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28 NAME : RAILWAY STATION ADDRESS: 5 MARKET PLACE TOWN: MUMBAI OWNER: GOVE OF INDIA TEL. NO: 0181 547 1245 AREA : 1300 SQ M ATTRIBUTE SPATIAL DATA anantarao.27@gmail.com INFORMATION ABOUT, WHAT CAN BE FOUND AT A PARTICULAR LOCATION

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NAME : IB BUNGLOW ADDRESS: P22/02 GANDHI CHOWK TOWN: DELHI OWNER: MIN OF DEF GOI TEL. NO: 0113242321 AREA : 1300 SQ M MEMBERS: ALL OFFRS & FAMILIES ATTRIBUTES - MPOV anantarao.27@gmail.com

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REAL-WORLD ENTITIES ARE ABSTRACTED INTO THREE BASIC SHAPES Points Retail stores Lines Streets Areas/Polygons Land uses anantarao.27@gmail.com REPRESENTING FEATURES IN VECTOR DATA

Vector vs Raster Graphics:

Vector vs Raster Graphics Image Source: Burrough, Peter A. and Rachael A. McDonnell. (1998). Principles of Geographic Information Systems . p 27. anantarao.27@gmail.com

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VECTOR RASTER RELATIVELY LOW DATA VOLUME RELATIVELY HIGH DATA VOLUME FAST ER DISPLAY SLOW ER DISPLAY CAN ALSO STORE ATTRIBUTES HAS NO ATTRIBUTE INFORMATION LESS PLEASING TO THE EYE MORE PLEASING TO THE EYE DOES NOT DICTATE HOW FEATURES SHOULD LOOK IN THE GIS INHERENTLY STORES HOW FEATURES SHOULD LOOK IN THE GIS VECTOR VS RASTER anantarao.27@gmail.com

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AN INTEGRATION OF FIVE BASIC COMPONENTS / Methods / Analysts / Processes anantarao.27@gmail.com COMPONENTS OF GIS

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Hardware Data Base *Spatial Data *Digital Map Data *Rectified Geo Ref *Aerial Photo/Image *Non spatial Data GIS Skill Set will Comprise Suitable Skilled & Knowledgeable Persons in map data acquisition & mgt using Latest tech & map Projection systems. Software Interoperable with other systems , OGC compliant GIS S/W, API. It should have capability to integrate map, image, digital ortho -photo, text data & geo-processing services With virtual earth applications e.g with Google map etc. anantarao.27@gmail.com COMPONENTS OF GIS

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anantarao.27@gmail.com BASIC FUNCTIONS OF GIS

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Query Analyze Store Display Capture Output Buildings Streets Reality Customers anantarao.27@gmail.com FUNCTIONS OF GIS

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DATA ACQUSITION / CAPTURING DATA A GIS MUST PROVIDE METHODS FOR INPUTTING GEOGRAPHIC (COORDINATE) AND TABULAR (ATTRIBUTE) DATA. THE MORE INPUT METHODS AVAILABLE, THE MORE VERSATILE THE GIS. DATA STORAGE THERE ARE TWO BASIC DATA MODELS FOR GEOGRAPHIC DATA STORAGE: VECTOR AND RASTER. A GIS SHOULD BE ABLE TO STORE GEOGRAPHIC DATA IN BOTH MODELS. anantarao.27@gmail.com FUNCTIONS OF GIS

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anantarao.27@gmail.com FUNCTIONS OF GIS QUERYING DATA A GIS MUST PROVIDE UTILITIES FOR FINDING SPECIFIC FEATURES BASED ON LOCATION OR ATTRIBUTE VALUE. ANALYZING DATA A GIS MUST BE ABLE TO ANSWER QUESTIONS REGARDING THE INTERACTION OF SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MULTIPLE DATASETS.

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anantarao.27@gmail.com FUNCTIONS OF GIS DATA DISPLAY A GIS MUST HAVE TOOLS FOR VISUALIZING GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES USING A VARIETY OF SYMBOLOGY. OUTPUT A GIS MUST BE ABLE TO DISPLAY RESULTS IN A VARIETY OF FORMATS, SUCH AS MAPS, REPORTS, AND GRAPHS.

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480585.5, 3769234.6 483194.1, 3768432.3 485285.8, 3768391.2 484327.4, 3768565.9 483874.7, 3769823.0 Hardcopy maps GPS GIS Data Coordinates Digital data anantarao.27@gmail.com DATA ACQUISITION

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Vector formats Discrete representations of reality Raster formats Use square cells to model reality Reality (A highway) X,Y Rows Columns X,Y X,Y X,Y X,Y anantarao.27@gmail.com DATA STORAGE

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IDENTIFYING SPECIFIC FEATURES IDENTIFYING FEATURES BASED ON CONDITIONS Florida counties with a population greater than 300,000 anantarao.27@gmail.com QUERY

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Which parcels are within 50 feet of the road? Well type Drilled Building owner Smith Soil type Sandy Proximity Overlay Network anantarao.27@gmail.com DATA ANALYSIS

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EXAMPLES SHOW THE LOC OF ALL THE VILLAGES ASTRIDE IB IN WHICH THE POPULATION IS MORE THAN 10000. REAL ESTATE VALUE PER UNIT AREA OF THOSE HOMES SOLD VIS-À-VIS THEIR DISTANCE FROM PUBLIC UTILITIES LIKE AIRPORT, RLY STN, SCHOOLS ETC. anantarao.27@gmail.com DATA ANALYSIS

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anantarao.27@gmail.com OUT PUT

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SOURCES OF GIS anantarao.27@gmail.com

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Retrieval of Information Maps Satellite Images Aerial Photos Attribute Data G P S TYPICAL DATA SOURCES OF GIS anantarao.27@gmail.com

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BETTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT LAYER DATA IN VARIOUS FORMATS HIGHER QUALITY ANALYSIS ABILITY TO CARRY OUT “WHAT IF?” SCENARIOS IMPROVE PROJECT EFFICIENCY SUPPORTS COMMON DSS 48 ADVANTAGES OF GIS anantarao.27@gmail.com

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anantarao.27@gmail.com APPLICATION OF GIS

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RDBMS ‘Information Base’ Operational data Geographic data Data entry forms, tables etc Reports, returns anantarao.27@gmail.com COMBO MIS - GIS

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Cl 24 Rd Cl 9 Rd Town X Town Y Town Z BASIC MAP ENTITY LAYER anantarao.27@gmail.com

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A Bn Town X B Bn Town Y C Bn Town Z USER DEFINED LAYER anantarao.27@gmail.com

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Cl 24 Rd Cl 9 Rd Town X Town Y Town Z B Bn A Bn C Bn COMBO LAYER anantarao.27@gmail.com

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ACQUISITION OF TARGETS IN AREA OF OPERATIONS. SITING OF WEAPON SYSTEMS. FLIGHT-LINE-MASKING WITH VERTICAL OBSTRUCTIONS. MOBILITY MAPS. anantarao.27@gmail.com FIRE SUPPORT

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WIRED COMMUNICATION. WIRELESS COMMUNICATION. SURVIVABILITY. NETWORK MANAGEMENT CENTRE. NETWORK OPERATION CENTRE. GARRISON NETWORKS. anantarao.27@gmail.com COMMUNICATION

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MOBILITY MAPS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF VEHICLES. CHOKE POINTS ALONG SUPPLY ROUTES. LIKELY LOGISTICS SUPPORT AREAS. POSSIBLE RE-SUPPLY ROUTES. COVER AND CONCEALMENT ALONG ROUTES. STORES MANAGEMENT. LOCATION OF LOGISTICS FACILITIES. CASUALTY EVACUATION ROUTES. LOCATION OF HOSPITALS. LOCATION OF REPAIR TEAMS. REQUIREMENT OF RECOVERY RESOURCES. PROVISION OF ENGINEER SUPPORT FOR LOGISTICS SUSTENANCE. anantarao.27@gmail.com LOGISTICS

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DETAILED GIS DATA REQD DURING IS PHYSICAL STRUCTURES. POWER LINES. TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION LINES. WATER PIPE LINES. SEWAGE SYSTEM. BUILDING WALL THICKNESS. anantarao.27@gmail.com INTERNAL SECURITY

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ASSET MANAGEMENT AND TRACKING ALLOTMENT OF ACCOMMODATION. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT. LAYOUT OF WATER, POWER AND TELECOMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURE. MANAGEMENT OF COMPLAINTS AND REPAIRS. FORCE PROTECTION AND SECURITY MANAGEMENT OF SECURITY. VEHICLE TRACKING. MONITORING CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND HIGH-RISK TARGETS. MANAGEMENT OF EMERGENCY OPERATIONS AND DISASTER RESPONSE TEAMS. anantarao.27@gmail.com MGMT OF MIL STNS AND EST

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SPECIAL FORCE OPERATIONS INVOLVES SMALL MOBILE DISPERSED FORCES OVER A WIDE AREA OF OPERATIONS. GIS PROVIDES DATA OVER VERY LARGE AREA IN NEAR REAL TIME. anantarao.27@gmail.com SF OP

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SPATIAL DATA ACCESS – IN CANADA AND IN ALBERTA GIS TODAY …. anantarao.27@gmail.com

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anantarao.27@gmail.com

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ADVANTAGES OF GIS EXPLORING BOTH GEOGRAPHICAL AND THEMATIC COMPONENTS OF DATA IN A HOLISTIC WAY STRESSES GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS OF A RESEARCH QUESTION ALLOWS HANDLING AND EXPLORATION OF LARGE VOLUMES OF DATA ALLOWS INTEGRATION OF DATA FROM WIDELY DISPARATE SOURCES ALLOWS ANALYSIS OF DATA TO EXPLICITLY INCORPORATE LOCATION ALLOWS A WIDE VARIETY OF FORMS OF VISUALISATION TOWARDS CONCLUSION…. anantarao.27@gmail.com

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LIMITATIONS OF GIS DATA ARE EXPENSIVE LEARNING CURVE ON GIS SOFTWARE CAN BE LONG SHOWS SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS BUT DOES NOT PROVIDE ABSOLUTE SOLUTIONS ORIGINS IN THE EARTH SCIENCES AND COMPUTER SCIENCE. SOLUTIONS MAY NOT BE APPROPRIATE FOR HUMANITIES RESEARCH TOWARDS CONCLUSION…. anantarao.27@gmail.com

FUTURISTIC TRENDS :

FUTURISTIC TRENDS anantarao.27@gmail.com WEB GIS 3D GIS MOBILE GIS

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QUESTIONS? anantarao.27@gmail.com

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THANK YOU anantarao.27@gmail.com

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