Kingdom Tower PPT ORIGNAL

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Kingdom Tower :

Kingdom Tower

General information:

General information Status Proposed Type Mixed-use; office, hotel, residential, apartments, observation, retail Architectural style Supertall skyscraper Location Jeddah , Saudi Arabia Coordinates 21.733°N 39.090°E Coordinates : 21.733°N 39.090°E Construction started Unknown Estimated completion 201 Cost SR 4.6 billion (US$1.23 billion (preliminary)


Height Architectural ≥ 1,000 m (3,281 ft Observatory 610 m (2,001 ft ) Technical details Structural system - Reinforced concrete and steel, all glass façade Floor count >156 total Floor area 319,000 m 2 (3,433,687 sq ft ) 530,000 m 2 (5,704,873 sq ft ) Lifts/elevators - 69

Design and construction:

Design and construction Owne r Kingdom Holding Company , Abraar Holding Company , Abdulrahman Hassan Sharbatly , Saudi Binladin Group Management - CBRE Group

PowerPoint Presentation:

Architect Adrian D. Smith , Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture , Chicago, USA Developer - Jeddah Economic Company (JEC ) Engineer - Langan International (sub-grade and transportation planning ) Structural engineer - Thornton Tomasetti Main contractor - Saudi Binladin Group


References Kingdom Tower ( Arabic : Burj al Mamlakah ‎), previously known as Mile-High Tower ( Arabic : برج الميل ‎‎), is a supertall skyscraper proposed for construction in Jeddah , Saudi Arabia at a preliminary cost of SR 4.6 billion (US$1.23 billion). It will be the centerpiece and first phase of a SR 75 billion (US$20 billion ) proposed development known as Kingdom City that will be located along the Red Sea on the north side of Jeddah. If completed as planned, the tower will reach unprecedented heights, becoming the tallest building in the world , as well as the first structure to reach the one-kilometer mark. The tower was initially planned to be 1.6-kilometre (1 mi) high; however, the geology of the area proved unsuitable for a tower of that height.

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The design , created by architect Adrian Smith , incorporates many unique structural and aesthetic features .The creator and leader of the project is Saudi Arabian Prince Al- Waleed bin Talal , the wealthiest Arab in the Middle East . [10] Reception of the proposal has been highly polarized, receiving high praise from some as a culturally significant icon that will symbolize the nation's wealth and power, while others question its socioeconomic motives, and forecast that it will have negative financial consequences.


Contents 1 Overview 2 Timeline 3 Design 4 Impact 4.1 Reception 5 Construction 6 Notes


Overview The building has been scaled down from its initial 1.6 km (about one mile) proposal, which was never fully designed, to a height of at least 1,000 metres (3,280.84 ft) (the exact height is being kept private while in development, similar to the Burj Khalifa ), which, at about one kilometre , would still make it by far the tallest building or structure in the world to date , standing at least 173 m (568 ft) taller than the Burj Khalifa in Dubai .

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The tower and its 50 hectares (120 acres) plot, which will include other buildings, will be the first phase of the Kingdom City development, a three-phase project proposed for a large area of undeveloped waterfront land with an area of 5.2 km² (56 million square feet, or 2 square miles ). It was originally planned to cover 23 km² (8.9 square miles) and cost SR100 billion . The area is located roughly 20 km (12 mi) north of the port city of Jeddah. Kingdom City was designed by HOK Architects ,and it is estimated that it will cost at least US$20 billion (SR75 billion) and take around 10 years to build. It will essentially become a new district of Jeddah . The second phase of the project will be all the infrastructure development needed to support the city, and the third phase has not yet been disclosed .

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The focal point of the development, Kingdom Tower's primary purpose will be to house a Four Seasons hotel , Four Seasons serviced apartments , Class A office space, and luxury condominiums; it will also have the world’s highest observatory. Although the Kingdom City plot is nearly isolated from the current urban core of Jeddah, northward is generally considered the direction in which the fast growing city will spread in the future. Regardless of this, no land tracts of such size were available closer to the city, anyway .


Timeline In May 2008, soil testing in the area cast doubt over whether the proposed location could support a skyscraper of the proposed one mile height, and MEED reported that the project had been scaled back, making it "up to 500 metres (1,640 ft) shorter .“ Reports in 2009 suggested that the project had been put on hold due to the global economic crisis and that Bechtel (the former engineering firm) was "in the process of ending its involvement with the project .“ Kingdom Holding Company quickly criticized the news reports, insisting that the project had not been shelved .

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In October 2010, the owners (Kingdom Holding Company) signed a development agreement with Emaar Properties PJSC. The final height of the building was questionable, but it was still listed to be over 1 kilometer . Kingdom Holding said construction was progressing In early August 2011, the Binladin Group was chosen as the main construction contractor with the signing of a SR4.6 billion (US$1.23 billion) contract , which is less than it cost to build the Burj Khalifa (US$1.5 billion

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On 21 September 2012 it was announced that financing for the Kingdom Tower was complete. Talal Al Maiman , chief executive officer and managing director of Kingdom Real Estate Development Co. said in an interview "We have all the investors, all the finance, all the money we need," Al Maiman said. "It took us beyond 20 months to convince investors, working every detail and aspect of financing.

Design :

Design Detailed rendering of Kingdom Tower cut out to show floors

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The triangular footprint and sloped exterior of Kingdom Tower is designed to reduce wind loads ; its high surface area also makes it ideal for residential units . The overall design of the tower, which will be located near both the Red Sea and the mouth of the Obhur Creek ( Sharm Ob'hur ) where it widens as it meets the Red Sea,as well as having frontage on a man-made waterway and harbor that will be built around it , is intended to look like a desert plant shooting upwards as a symbol of Saudi Arabia's growth and future, as well as to add prominence to Jeddah's status as the gateway into the holy city of Mecca . The designer's vision was “one that represents the new spirit in Saudi Arabia" (Smith ). The 23 hectare (57 acre) area around Kingdom Tower will contain public space and a shopping mall, as well as other residential and commercial developments, and be known as the Kingdom Tower Water Front District , of which, the tower's site alone will take up 500,000 m 2 (5,381,955 sq ft ). As with many other very tall skyscrapers, including the Kingdom Centre in Riyadh , which is generally considered to have sparked the recent significant commercial developments around it in the district of Olaya ,much of the intention of Kingdom Tower is to be symbolic as well as to raise the surrounding land value rather than its own profitability

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A rendering showing the bottom of the unique, glass-floored, circular sky terrace that will overlook the Red Sea from over 610 metres (2,000 ft)

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The building will have a total of 59 elevators, five of which will be double-deck elevators , as well as 12 escalators. It will also have the highest observation deck in the world, to which high speed elevators will travel at up to 10 meters (33 feet) per second (slightly over 35 km/h (22 mph)) in both directions. The elevators cannot go faster because the rapid change in air pressure over that much distance would be nauseating; at 914 m (3,000 ft), the air pressure is over 10 kPa (1.5 psi) lower than at ground level (about 10% less air pressure ). They must also be efficient so the cables are not unbearably heavy


Impact The recent announcement of the tower has provoked widespread and highly divided reaction throughout the media. Those who support the project see it as an investment that, although visionary, will have positive social and economic effects on the area as well as the country in the long term, while others see it as nothing more than the result of self-centered and attention seeking competition between oil-rich gulf nations that will serve no purpose other than as a white elephant , costing more and generating less than expected, if it even gets built.


Construction While the official construction estimate is five years and three months (63 months), others calculate that it will take significantly longer, over seven years, based on the duration of Burj Khalifa's construction , which was over six years. Geotechnical investigation ( s oil testing) took place in 2008. Work on the foundation is currently scheduled to begin towards the end of 2012 . However, statements that construction will begin soon have been made since 2008, but have been postponed each time. In August 2011, the start of construction was slated as "no later than December ," with some saying "immediately," and that construction is imminent. This meant the tower was expected to be completed in 2017, though at that time it was also possible that it could still have been completed by the date the media continued to publish, which was the prior estimate of late 2016.Only if construction had begun promptly and went smoothly could a late 2016 completion be achieved .

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Designs for the foundation were in place by early August 2011 and the contract for the piling was being tendered . On 16 August 2011, Langan International officially announced their involvement and that the foundation and piling had to be uniquely designed to overcome subsurface issues such as soft bedrock and porous coral rock, which normally could not support a skyscraper without settling . The foundation will be similar to that of the Burj Khalifa , but larger. It is expected to be around 60 metres (197 ft) deep with a concrete pad of around 7,500 m 2 (80,729 sq ft). The concrete will have to have low permeability to keep out corrosive salt water from the Red Sea, its depth and size is also considered to be an indicator of what the tower's final height will be. .

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The piles will be up to 200 metres (656 ft) deep and the pad over 300 feet (91 m) across, yet even still the building, which will weigh over 900,000 tons, is expected to settle. The idea is that it settles evenly enough so that the building doesn't tip or put undue stress on the superstructure . Computer modeling programs performed tests at the site to confirm that the foundation design would work. A later design for the foundation, to be constructed by Bauer in 2013, calls for 270 bored piles up to 110 metres (361 ft) deep which have to be installed into the difficult ground conditions

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Construction of the building will rely on cutting edge technology, including the high-strength reinforced concrete and the pumps used to elevate it to record heights, similar to what was used during Burj Khalifa's construction . Bob Sinn, principal of Thornton Tomasetti states, “Concrete quality is getting better and better, as is pumping technology. There have been very strong advances in reinforced concrete over the last 20 years." He continued, “Kingdom Tower is certainly feasible. It’s not a structural challenge. Technically I think a 2 km (6,562 ft)-tall tower could be done, but I don’t think it will be done anytime soon .” Kingdom Tower is not only the only approved structure over 1,000 metres (3,281 ft), it is also the only proposal higher than the 828-metre (2,717 ft) Burj Khalifa to be given the green light for construction .

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