THE PERFECT TENSE

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Category: Education
     
 

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Original presentation was taken from Dr. Nilda Sunga's ELA class in PNU. I have changed and added some features to make it simpler and comprehensive. E-mail me if you want a copy of this ppt: hanid78@yahoo.com

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Good morning class!:

Good morning class!

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A wise, old Middle Eastern mystic said about himself. “I was a revolutionary when I was young and all my prayer to God was, ‘Lord give me the energy to change the world. ‘ As I approached middle age and realized that my life was half-gone without my changing a single soul, I changed my prayer to ‘ Lord, give me grace to change all those who come in contact with me. Just my family and the family and friends and I shall be satisfied. ‘ Now that I am an old man and my days are numbered, I have begun to see how foolish I have been. My prayer now is “Lord, give the grace to change myself. If I had prayed for the right from the start, I should have not wasted my life.”

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which show action already completed The word perfect literally means "made complete" or "completely done.“ They are formed by the appropriate tense of the verb to have plus the past participle of the verb. The Perfect Tenses

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The perfect forms are generally used to represent something that has happened up to another point in time. Examples: Present Peter has visited Paris twice. (In his life, up until now) Jane has been playing tennis for two hours. (until now)

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the present perfect tense is formed by: present perfect e.g. I have/ she has been ill since last Saturday. have + en form of the verb (past participle)

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I have / she has lived in Singapore since 1990 present perfect meaning: an event which began in the past continues into the present ※ ※ 1990 NOW

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formed by: have + been + V-ing (pres. part.) present perfect continuous some verbs do not occur in the present perfect continuous (only in the present perfect), i.e. sensing verbs and verbs of being /having. e.g. I have been knowing her for a long time. I have been having a cat for two weeks. e.g. He has been living in Singapore for one year

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I have been waiting for two hours. meaning: the event began in the past and is not necessarily complete, i.e. it may continue into the present. ※ ※ 6 p.m. now (8 p.m.) present perfect continuous

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Past She had lived in Las Piñas for 6 years before she moved to Baguio. (up to the time she moved to Baguio) She had been studying for 4 hours when he arrived. (The four hours directly before he arrived)

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When she had finished she poured herself a drink ※ ※ ※ more distant past past present finish pour meaning: a past event is related to an event that occurred even earlier in the past. past perfect

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formed by: had + -en form of the verb (past participle) past perfect e.g. By 8:45 AM everyone had arrived so the class began . distant past past arrive begin present

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formed by: past perfect continuous distant past past present living moved e.g. He had been living in Singapore before he moved to Hong Kong. had been V-ing (pres. part.)

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※ ※ ※ period in the past past event present walk begin meaning: a past event is related to an earlier event which continued for some time. It began to rain after I had been walking for an hour past perfect continuous

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Future We will have finished the course by this time next year. (up to this time a year from now) I will have been working for 2 hours by the time he arrives tomorrow. (the two hours before he arrives tomorrow)

the forms of tenses:

the forms of tenses present tense past tense pres.part past. part pres. part -s -ed -ing -ed works worked is working was working has worked had worked has been working had been working simple continuous perfect perfect + continuous

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tense present past simple event is usual -s event is completed -ed continuous event is currently ongoing: is V-ing event is ongoing in the past: was V-ing perfect event began in the past & continues presently: has -ed event is related to an even earlier past event: had -ed perfect continuous event began in the past and is not necessarily complete; i.e. it may continue into the present: has been V-ing event is related to an earlier event which went on for some time: had been V- ing meaning of the tenses

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incorrect use of tenses sequences of tenses: We had a police force whose duty is to protect us. We have a police force whose duty is to protect us. We had a police force whose duty was to protect us. OR

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using have in the continuous (present or past) e.g. * She’s having a cold. *They were having lots of money. incorrect use of tenses She has a cold. They had lots of money. Generally speaking, continuous tenses are not permitted with verbs of being (including have = possess )

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using past perfect tense where no earlier event in the past is implied, incorrect use of tenses e.g. I had read that book years ago. I read that book years ago. When no event earlier in the past is relevant, then the simple past tense should be used, i.e.

the forms of tenses:

the forms of tenses present tense past tense pres.part past. part pres. part -s -ed -ing -ed works worked is working was working has worked had worked has been working had been working simple continuous perfect perfect + continuous

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tense present past simple event is usual -s event is completed -ed continuous event is currently ongoing: is V-ing event is ongoing in the past: was V-ing perfect event began in the past & continues presently: has -ed event is related to an even earlier past event: had -ed perfect continuous event began in the past and is not necessarily complete; i.e. it may continue into the present: has been V-ing event is related to an earlier event which went on for some time: had been V- ing meaning of the tenses

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