T21G2_E-portfolio

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T21G2 PBL E-Portfolio : 

T21G2 PBL E-Portfolio Group: Ici-Bang Ching Mei Fei Lee Yu Jie Lin Zijing Loo Jiaming Oh Keng Ann

The PBL Process : 

The PBL Process

Scenario 3: : 

Scenario 3: ......‘Sigh! What a disappointment Sec 2E is! Do you know what Meng Soon’s answer was when I asked him to tell the class how a tsunami is formed? And that’s not all … the whole class was, as they say, “blurrr” and their answers were “lame”’ Miss Rita lamented to her colleagues at their usual 10 o’clock canteen talk sessions. Miss Rita is in her fifth month of teaching since graduating from NIE. She continued. ‘His answer was “Tsunamis are caused by high atmospheric pressure!” When I gawped at him in disbelief, he quickly changed his answer to “No, it’s low pressure.” John told me it’s due to global warming and retreating glaciers. And Anisah, … she usually reads up before the lesson, said that it’s volcanic eruptions but could not elaborate. To my horror, some of them don’t even know what a tsunami is! Do they read the papers about the disaster in 2004? I don’t think they understood my explanation either. Can you people help me to think up how I can explain how tsunamis are formed before my next class?

Scenario 3: : 

Scenario 3: ‘‘You can get them to search the Internet for a start. This should give them information on the origins of the word tsunami and, if they are lucky, some applets or multimedia clips on the formation of tsunamis,’ Miss BBB, an IT enthusiast, volunteered. ‘But you are assuming that they have the prerequisite knowledge! By the way, what are the prerequisites to understanding how tsunamis are formed? Did you build that up first? Make sure you go from concrete to abstract,” Mrs. CCC spoke, in between sips of coffee. ‘That reminds me of the movie Godzilla! Why don’t you start with Godzilla jumping into the ocean for a swim… that should hold their attention … and guide them to see how the waves would get bigger and taller as they come crashing onto the shore,’ Mr. Mohammed suggested, with a glint in his eyes.

Scenario 3: : 

Scenario 3: ‘Thanks, people! Fortunately, I have this afternoon to try out some of your suggestions, maybe models or computer simulations of how the earth moves or a wave tank to demonstrate the properties of waves, and group work or jigsaw to organise the class,’ answered Miss Rita happily. ‘I’m sure the students will have fun but I wonder whether the activities will help them learn …,’ muttered Miss Rita to herself……

Problem Encounter: : 

Problem Encounter: Problem Statement: Miss Rita did not understand students' learning abilities and styles before setting her lesson objectives and learning activities.

Notes of Discussion: : 

Notes of Discussion: Week 1: Week 2:

Notes of Discussion: : 

Notes of Discussion: Week 3:

Notes of Discussion: : 

Notes of Discussion: Week 4:

Mind-Map: : 

Mind-Map:

KND Chart: : 

KND Chart:

KND Chart: : 

KND Chart:

KND Chart: : 

KND Chart:

Problem A: Students were unable to understand what Ms Rita taught. (Teacher’s side) : 

Problem A: Students were unable to understand what Ms Rita taught. (Teacher’s side)

Problem A: Students were unable to understand what Ms Rita taught. (Teacher’s side) : 

Problem A: Students were unable to understand what Ms Rita taught. (Teacher’s side) Problem A: Students were unable to understand what Ms Rita taught. (Teacher’s side)

Problem A: Students were unable to understand what Ms Rita taught. (Teacher’s side) : 

Problem A: Students were unable to understand what Ms Rita taught. (Teacher’s side)

Problem A: Students were unable to understand what Ms Rita taught. (Teacher’s side) : 

Problem A: Students were unable to understand what Ms Rita taught. (Teacher’s side)

Problem A: Students were unable to understand what Ms Rita taught. (Teacher’s side) : 

Problem A: Students were unable to understand what Ms Rita taught. (Teacher’s side)

Problem A: Students were unable to understand what Ms Rita taught. (Teacher’s side) : 

Problem A: Students were unable to understand what Ms Rita taught. (Teacher’s side)

Problem B: Students were not interested in the lesson. (Teacher’s side) : 

Problem B: Students were not interested in the lesson. (Teacher’s side)

Problem B: Students were not interested in the lesson. (Teacher’s side) : 

Problem B: Students were not interested in the lesson. (Teacher’s side)

Problem B: Students were not interested in the lesson. (Teacher’s side) : 

Problem B: Students were not interested in the lesson. (Teacher’s side)

Problem B: Students were not interested in the lesson. (Teacher’s side) : 

Problem B: Students were not interested in the lesson. (Teacher’s side)

Problem C: Students could not answer Ms Rita's questions.  (Teacher’s side) : 

Problem C: Students could not answer Ms Rita's questions.  (Teacher’s side)

Problem C: Students could not answer Ms Rita's questions.  (Teacher’s side) : 

Problem C: Students could not answer Ms Rita's questions.  (Teacher’s side)

Problem C: Students could not answer Ms Rita's questions.  (Teacher’s side) : 

Problem C: Students could not answer Ms Rita's questions.  (Teacher’s side)

Problem C: Students could not answer Ms Rita's questions.  (Students’ side) : 

Problem C: Students could not answer Ms Rita's questions.  (Students’ side)

Problem C: Students could not answer Ms Rita's questions.  (Students’ side) : 

Problem C: Students could not answer Ms Rita's questions.  (Students’ side)

Learning Issues: : 

Learning Issues: To understand how students acquire new knowledge. Through social interaction, build-up from prior knowledge, observation or modelling?  Does a teacher need to start off with lower order thinking questions? To learn the strategies a teacher should take when formulating questions. Formulate questions according to students' learning abilities? Start off with lower-order questions? How should the teacher guide the students in answering questions? To find out what prior knowledge students have on the topic of tsunamis. Is it important for teachers to assess students' prior knowledge regarding the topic before lesson? To understand the impacts of positive and negative stimuli on students. Should a teacher engage negative stimuli during teaching?  To find out the types of activity that can best gain the students' attention, facilitate retention and provide opportunity for production. Which group of learners do the students fall under? Auditory, visual or kinaesthetic?

Discovery and Reporting: : 

Discovery and Reporting: Balaban, N. (1995). Seeing the child, knowing the person. In W. Ayers (Ed.), To Become a Teacher: Making a difference in children’s lives (pp. 49-64). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.  Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Benjafield, J. G. (1992). Cognition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Berk, L. E., & Winsler, A. (1995). Scaffolding children's learning: Vygotsky and early childhood learning. Washington: National Association for the Education of Young Children. Bigenho, F. W., Jr. (1992). Conceptual developments in schema theory. ERIC Document No.: ED351392.

Discovery and Reporting: : 

Discovery and Reporting: Chaiklin, S. (2003). The zone of proximal development in Vygotsky's analysis of learning and instruction. In A. Kozulin, B. Gindis, V. Ageyev, & S. Miller (Eds.), Vygotsky's educational theory and practice in cultural context (pp. 39-64). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Eylon, B., & Linn, M. (1988). Learning and instruction: An examination of four research perspectives in science education. Review of Educational Research, 58(3), 251–301. Farnham-Diggory, S. (1992). Cognitive processes in education (2nd ed.). New York: HarperCollins. Henstock, M., & Moss, S. (2007). Generic youth development program manual: A generic experiential learning youth development program designed by the young endeavour youth scheme. Retrieved November 6th, 2010, from http://www.sailtraininginternational.org/_uploads/documents/CaptainsPage/YoungEndeaoourProgramme.pdf.

Discovery and Reporting: : 

Discovery and Reporting: Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Learning Theories Knowledgebase. (2010). Social learning theory (Bandura). Retrieved November 6th, 2010, from http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html. Leinhardt, G. (1992). What research on learning tells us about teaching. Educational Leadership, 49(7), 20-25. Piaget, J. (1972a). Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood. Human Development, 15, 1–12. Piaget, J. (1972b). To Understand Is To Invent. New York: Viking Press.

Discovery and Reporting: : 

Discovery and Reporting: Renner and others (1976). Research, teaching, and learning with the Piaget model. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1992). Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher expectation and pupils' intellectual development (Expanded ed.). New York: Irvington. Santrock, J. W. (2009). Educational psychology (4th ed.) (McGraw-Hill International Edition). Boston: McGraw-Hill. Skinner, B.F. (1968). The Technology of Teaching. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Solution Presentation: : 

Solution Presentation:

Reflection: Loo JiaMing : 

The PBL experience has changed my perception of learning completely. In the past, we need to first acquire content knowledge from our teachers, and then apply what we have learnt to solving test questions, so as to assess our level of proficiency in a specific area of knowledge. In PBL, however, I am presented with a real-world problem, without having any prior content knowledge at hand. In that way, learning becomes a self-directed process, with no spoon-feeding from the teachers. In addition, traditional learning approach focuses on individual efforts. This is not the case for PBL, as the problem presented is often too complex to be solved by one person. Positive interdependence has to be established among group members for PBL to succeed. Such collaborative learning is a closer reflection of the working environment in the real world. Reflection: Loo JiaMing

Reflection: Loo JiaMing : 

Reflection: Loo JiaMing This PBL experience is very useful for nurturing my competencies as a beginning teacher. Through the scenario analysis analysis, I become more familiar with various learning theories, the knowledge of which can help improve the pedagogical soundness of my lesson plans in future. Besides, since PBL is a collective effort, I, the leader of my group, now have a clearer idea of how to negotiate our group’s common objectives and manage each team member’s learning tasks. At a personal level, each team member has to articulate his or her learning gaps, and the team has to find a way to complement all these strengths and weaknesses in order to maximise the team’s learning potential. Finally, the PBL experience gives me the opportunity to reflect on my own learning. This is extremely important to my being a beginning teacher, as there is still much room for improvement in terms of my pedagogical skills, and only through reflection can I be aware of my strengths and shortcomings in this aspect.

Reflection: Loo JiaMing : 

Reflection: Loo JiaMing However, PBL is still a very novel learning approach for most of us. Therefore, even though it is by right totally student-directed, I definitely appreciate more guidance from the tutor during the early stages of PBL. Otherwise, learners who are unfamiliar with PBL may lose sight of their learning goals, wasting time on unnecessary tasks that do not work towards the learning objectives. But once learners understand the PBL process, learners can then take complete control of their learning. Subsequently, they will be able to perform other PBL activities without needing too much guidance from the tutor.   Our group has documented our learning process rather meticulously in the PBL e-portfolio, by including several optional deliverables, such as notes of discussion and presentation script. Our problem analysis has also covered a myriad of learning theories, giving our scenario a comprehensive and rigorous treatment. Besides, to expedite our tutor’s reading, our group has also taken the initiative to collate our major deliverables into one PPT, which is not a requirement for this PBL assignment.

Reflection: Loo JiaMing : 

Reflection: Loo JiaMing The use of authentic classroom footage in the video scenarios is very appropriate, as we can better relate to these scenarios that we may encounter in our future teaching career. Should we encounter similar problems in future, we will know how to go about resolving them. That said, the context presented in authentic classroom footage can sometimes be too subject-specific. For example, Scenario III deals with the subject of Geography and the topic of tsunami formation. Granted that the learning points we get from our problem analysis can be applied to all subjects, this PBL activity will be much more relevant and beneficial to me, if I am given a scenario directly related to my teaching subject (Chinese Language) instead.

Reflection: Loo JiaMing : 

Reflection: Loo JiaMing After having engaged with the content of Educational Psychology, I am all the more convinced that direct instruction should no longer be the primary means of learning in our classroom. Spoon-feeding from teachers does not help in promoting students’ intrinsic motivation for learning. Teachers cannot be their students’ problem-solvers forever; students have to, at some point of time in their lives, take ownership of their learning by setting their own learning objectives and learning tasks. Only in that way can they become an active and effective member of Singapore’s knowledge economy after they complete their studies.

Reflection: Oh Keng Ann : 

Reflection: Oh Keng Ann The problem-based learning (PBL) experience has changed the way I learn completely. In the past, learning seems to start from the theory and end off with trying to apply the theory to the problem. But with PBL, I learn to first analyse the problem and hypotheses what might cause the problem. I only try to look for theories that support my hypotheses after that, reversing the learning order I used to have. It is therefore more useful for analysing the problem in the real-world teaching context, since we are using the theory to explain the problem, and not trying to find a problem to explain the theory. Along the same direction, I also learn to solve problems by first trying to analyse the problem, followed by hypothesizing and finding supporting theories. With the relevant theories found, I then seek to find solution to solve the problem. The task of analysing the problem, hypothesizing, finding relevant theories and solutions can be made easy if it is done in group. I use to think that group learning is a waste of time as there are too many people in a group with diverse thinking and understanding. However, with PBL, I realise that group learning can be made effective through Jigsaw Activity, where everyone play a part in reading up a relevant theory and try to find a solution for the problem. As long as everyone shares their ideas and explain patiently, it is useful for analysing or solving the problem. In fact, it can further trigger thinking activities for the other group members, which aids in making the PBL effective.

Reflection: Oh Keng Ann : 

Reflection: Oh Keng Ann The PBL experience had also nurtured my competencies as a beginning teacher. Through analysing the problems in the PBL, I picked up important pedagogy that can help to make my lesson effective and interesting. I also picked up pointers on what to take note of and what to reflect upon when writing a lesson plan, as well as when I am carrying out a lesson. Working in a group, I learn to respect others' ideas. I also picked up important pointers on how to avoid conflicts between group mates, and how to resolve conflicts in a peaceful manner. These are essential interpersonal skills which will be useful when I converse with colleagues, students or parents. On the personal level, I learn how to analyse and solve a problem orderly. The brainstorming and hypothesizing activities also broaden my exposure. I also learn to work efficiently under time constraint, both independently and in a group. In addition, I learn to organize my thoughts and ideas, both verbally and written. My management skills have also improved, in terms of time management and some extent of classroom management.

Reflection: Oh Keng Ann : 

Reflection: Oh Keng Ann The PBL approach however, can be further improved. Firstly, a better equipped tutorial room could have been used to facilitate discussion. Next, some of the instruction can be confusing. Deliverables could be misunderstood at times. Either the teacher could interfere to elaborate each week, or the instruction could be made more clear, so that the students are clear of what to deliver. Finally, there could be easier alternatives to the using of PB wiki, which takes time to master. More time could then be channeled into PBL. I used to believe that how well student learn depend on how much effort they put in. But after engaging with the content of Educational Psychology, I realise that more than student themselves, teacher have a greater impact on the students than what I perceive previously. What the teacher teach and how the teacher teach affects how well the student learn. My present belief is that if the teacher can create a positive learning environment and attempts to engage the students prior knowledge when teaching, enabling them to relate to what is being taught, the students learn best.

Reflection: Oh Keng Ann : 

Reflection: Oh Keng Ann The obvious strength of the e-portfolio is that everything related to the PBL can be found inside. These include the problems, hypotheses, theories, solutions and each group members' contribution weekly. It is organised as there is a designated page for each part of the PBL. There is also page history to keep track of the progress of the PBL. However, the limitation is that only one person can update the page at a time. If the other person unethically steals the lock, the original editor will lose all his effort. The update needs to be saved before the change is reflected. The other group members need to refresh their page before they can see the change. A real time update and simultaneous editing like that of the google docs will be more useful. The most obvious limitation is that it is online and if there is no connection to the internet, the e-portfolio will not be accessible.

Reflection: Oh Keng Ann : 

Reflection: Oh Keng Ann Using of the authentic classroom footage in the video scenarios for PBL have its strengths and limitations. It is more interesting to view the problem scenario compared to reading it in text form. The attitude and behaviour of the students and teachers can also be observed from the video. It is easier to relate to the problem as a third party. However, the classroom footage can only to relevant to a certain extent. It is restrictive in some way, as the situation reflected might never appear in our future teaching career, making it not relevant. For example, my scenario is about Geography and I am teaching Chinese Language. At the same time, while using the video for PBL, we might lose focus of what we need to take note of, as there are too much details in the background and we might get distracted.

Reflection: Lin ZiJing : 

Reflection: Lin ZiJing I have learnt how to work collaboratively with other team members. It would have been a daunting task if I were to complete this project by myself but through group work, I am able to learn in a more effectively manner and also to complete the project with more ease.   I have learnt to respect the different opinions of my group members. It is normal to have differences in opinions as everyone sees things from a different perspective. However, we do understand that the common objective for all of us it to do well in the project and everyone is keen to contribute and play a part in order to achieve the objective. Whenever there are differences in opinions, we bring it up and discuss it with an open mind and we are often able to agree to a conclusion. Through these experiences, I have become more conscious of how good interpersonal skill can help in resolving conflicts and misunderstandings within the group.

Reflection: Lin ZiJing : 

Reflection: Lin ZiJing It is important to observe good discipline within the group as we must be able to meet specific datelines agreed by all the members. As this is a group work, the whole work flow will be affected if any member fails to complete the assigned task within the dateline. As such, I need to be organized in my work and make sure I do not hinder the group’s progress. It would be great if there are some platforms which would support synchronous communication (eg. chatbox) between the group members.   It seemed that students will be able to carry out their work just by taking instructions from the e-portfolio. However, guidance from the tutor is equally important. It would be great if the tutor can provide us with some feedback on a weekly basis after looking through our work posted on the e-portfolio.

Reflection: Lin ZiJing : 

Reflection: Lin ZiJing It is important for us to know that the 3 cases for this PBL exercise are actually very real cases which are happening in classrooms in Singapore. Some of us might even have encountered similar problems before. As such, we would then put ourselves in the shoes of the teachers in the videos to come up with feasible solutions to the problems.

Reflection: Ching Mei Fei : 

Reflection: Ching Mei Fei This PBL experience has enabled me to embark on a different learning journey compared to my previous experiences. Before this, I was seldom given real-life case studies and problems to work on, and tasked to work as a team to search for solutions. PBL has paced out a systematic way for problem solving process, and I find that this helps to keep one onto the course of problem solving and prevents one from straying too far from the problem. By engaging the KND chart during the problem solving process has facilitated much thinking process on my side and pushed me to think on what necessary preparation work needed to be done before going into solving the problem.

Reflection: Ching Mei Fei : 

Reflection: Ching Mei Fei Besides, I find that brainstorming on the pertinent issues of a case-study using a mind-map at the start helps one look at the problem in different perspectives. Moving on, I have also come to realise that by working in a team helps to increase group learning efficiency and promotes collaborative learning. Through collaborative learning and peer teaching, one could learn more within a shorter a time frame. When the case-study was posed to us in the beginning, we have no prior knowledge pertaining to the case. This brings in the process of self-directed learning which propels us to look for the related materials and readings without much guidance from our tutor, hence, trained me to become a more independent learner. I feel that much guidance from the tutor is needed at the initial stage of PBL process, as this could help students to get familiarises with the system and the process sooner and more easily. Moreover, to have real-time feedback or enquiry system might be able to help students be more comfortable and at ease with the new learning environment.

Reflection: Ching Mei Fei : 

Reflection: Ching Mei Fei After this PBL experiences, I have came to learn about different learning theories and behavioural modification approaches. As a beginning teacher, I am sure that this could enhance my classroom management skills and pedagogical skills in lesson planning. Having realised that good communication among team-members is relative to high work efficiency, I would try to further work on my communication interpersonal skills. Personally, I have learned not to restrict myself to a hard and fast rule on how things can be learn and how problems can be solved. Through reflections, I am able to keep track of the areas which I have done well and the areas which I should further work on, and this could help me in becoming a more effective teacher as time goes by.

Reflection: Ching Mei Fei : 

Reflection: Ching Mei Fei The e-portfolio has enabled us to collate all the works and materials from every member more easily, thus allowing every member to have access and learn from each other. Moreover, the e-portfolio has listed out the learning process systematically, which allows us to keep track of our progress easily. In addition, the e-portfolio has allowed us the flexibility to edit the files and pages anytime, anywhere. However, for those who have never used the e-portfolio before, it might cause confusion to the users on how to go about accomplishing the required deliverables. Even thought the e-portfolio has listed down the steps systematically, one might not follow the steps meticulously during the problem solving process. It is because all the folders in the e-portfolio are accessible to the members at all times, and anyone could just jump the step and proceed on without the need to accomplish the step before.

Reflection: Ching Mei Fei : 

Reflection: Ching Mei Fei By using an authentic classroom footage in the video scenarios has brought me closer to the possible real-life issues which could happen to any teacher in any schools. This real-life context is very practical for case-study and the proposed solutions could be useful to us when we go out to teach in the near future. After having engaged with the content of Educational Psychology, I think that students learn best at a safe and motivating environment. By placing positive expectations on students and encouraging them positively, students will be able to learn and perform positively.

Reflection: Lee Yu Jie : 

Reflection: Lee Yu Jie I think that Problem-based learning is a good and effective learning approach as it facilitates student centered learning. It is not just about sitting in the classroom to listen and learn the theories as a student without any application. It helps me to pick out issues for analyzing and to link them to the best feasible solutions, and further bringing in theories to support them. Initially our group had encountered some problem in understanding how to go about doing the project, however after more research and discussion, we managed to work it out. I understand that in order to make the group learning effective, we have to work together collaboratively.

Reflection: Lee Yu Jie : 

Reflection: Lee Yu Jie Through the self-directed learning by each member and peer sharing session, all of us benefited as we can gain valuable information regarding different theories and address one another’s questions and doubts to apply theories and solutions to our case scenario. In order to work with all the group members effectively, I’ve understand that everyone will have their own viewpoints, so mistakes or conflicts are inevitable. So it is important for us to keep an open mind to listen and value one another’s viewpoints to reach a common consensus. In this way, unhappiness among group members can be reduced to a minimum.

Reflection: Lee Yu Jie : 

Reflection: Lee Yu Jie When there is any issue that propped up along the way, it is also important for us to sit together to discuss and come up with solutions. This group project has given me an insight on how I can work with my future colleagues collaboratively in an effective way as a beginning teacher. Through this Problem-based learning experience, it allows me to think critically and learn how to apply theories and knowledge learnt into practice to solve problems in a teacher’s perspective. In my future teaching, I can also give Problem-based learning assignments to my students as teaching approach as it facilitates student-centered learning and can broaden their thinking horizon and make the process of learning more interesting.

Thank you~ : 

Thank you~

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