H.264 Video Error Concealment

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H.264 Video Error Concealment:

H.264 Video Error Concealment GROUP 11 Cavin D’souza -- 09 Saurabh Mistry -- 26 Sannidhi Y.Dixit -- 44 Elveera Menezes -- 47

TABLE OF CONTENTS::

TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction Purpose of H.264 video coding YUV test video sequences Approach Application requirements References

Introduction:

Introduction Parts of video may be lost or corrupted during transmission over the wireless network. H.264/AVC video codec provides a high compression gain but makes the video stream more vulnerable. When feedback is unavailable or limited, this problem is traditionally solved by applying a Forward Error Correction (FEC) code but these result in increased overhead in terms of bit rate, and require a change in the encoding standard.

3G/4G Cellular Telephony:

3G/4G Cellular Telephony Typical situation on 3G/4G cellular telephony

Purpose of H.264:

Purpose of H.264 Latest Video coding standard. Basic design architecture similar to MPEG-x or H.26x. Better compression efficiency. Up to 50% bit rate reduction from the preceding video codec standard. Subjective quality is better. Variety of applications such as video broadcasting, video streaming, video conferencing, D-Cinema, HDTV.

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H.264 Eco System Heterogeneous Environments

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H.264/AVC two-layered Structure Design H.264/AVC has adopted a two-layer structure design. Video Coding Layer (VCL), which efficiently represents the video content. Network Abstraction Layer (NAL), which formats the VCL representation of the video and provides header information in a manner appropriate for conveyance by particular transport layers (such as Real Time Transport Protocol) or storage media. VCL Control Data Data Partitioning NAL Coded Slice/Partition Coded MBs

Block Diagram of H.264 Encoder:

Block Diagram of H.264 Encoder

Block Diagram of H.264 Decoder:

Block Diagram of H.264 Decoder

YUV Test Video Sequences:

YUV Test Video Sequences (a) Foreman Sequence It shows a construction worker moving his head and making facial gestures to the camera with a construction site next to the worker. Some tilting takes place during the sequence by the camera . (b) Hall Monitor Sequence Some motion is presented in the middle region of the frames when two workers walk along the corridor in opposite directions. One of them drops a suitcase; the other one grabs a small TV set.no titling of the camera.

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(c) Coastguard Sequence The upper half doesn't have significant motion but in the bottom half two boats move in opposite directions. The water flow represents significant motion. (d) Container Sequence A cargo container and a small boat represent most of the motion in this scene by moving slowly from left to right at the upper part of the frame. Water ripples give no significant motion to the lower part of the frame. Some birds pass across the screen at the end of the sequence.

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(e) Carphone Sequence Motion in the scene is shown at the window of the car, facial gestures and hand movements of the person talking. (f) Stefan Sequence A lot of motion is presented in this scene by keeping track of the tennis player in action. The background is in constant motion all the time due to the panning of the camera.

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Error Concealment Problem : Transmission errors may result in loss of information Goal : Estimate the lost information in order to conceal the fact that an error has occurred. Basic Approach: Perform some form of spatial/temporal Concealment to estimate the lost information from correctly received data.

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Spatial Error Concealment: 1.Estimate missing pixels by smoothly extrapolating surrounding pixels. 2.Correctly recovering missing pixels is extremely difficult. Original Frame Defected frame Spatial concealment

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Temporal Error Concealment: 1. Copy the pixels at the same spatial location in the previous frame. 2.Effective when there is no motion, potential problems when there is motion. FRAME 1 (Original) FRAME 2 (Defected) FRAME 2 (Temporal concealment)

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SPATIAL CONCEALMENT TEMPORAL CONCEALMENT HYBRID CONCEALMENT (SPATIAL + TEMPORAL)

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The basic metrics to measure the subjective quality of the frame reconstructed by the error concealment algorithms are: - MSE(Mean Square Error) - P SNR(Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) - SSIM(Structural Similarity Index)

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Application Requirements

References::

References: [1] Santosh V. Chapaneri ; Jeffrey J. Rodriguez,” Low Complexity Error Concealment Scheme for Intra-frames in H.264/AVC”, Image Processing (ICIP), 2009 16th IEEE International Conference, 7-10 Nov. 2009, pages 925-928 [2] Santosh V. Chapaneri ; Jeffrey J. Rodriguez, “Content-Adaptive Macroblock Partitioning Scheme for Error Concealment of H.264/AVC Coded Video”, Image Processing (ICIP), 2009 16th IEEE International Conference, 7-10 Nov. 2009, pages 917-920. [3]Multidimensional Signal, Image and Video Processing and Coding, John W. Woods. [4]Handbook of Image and Video Processing, A.L. Bovik . [5]Video Processing and Communications by Y.Wang and Yo -Qin Zhang [6] Yan Chen;   Yang Hu ;   Au, O.C.; Houqiang Li;   Chang Wen Chen;  ,” Video Error Concealment Using Spatio -Temporal Boundary Matching and Partial Differential Equation ”, Multimedia, IEEE Transactions ,Jan 2008,Volume: 10 ,Issue :1 [7] El Beheiry , N.; El Sharkawy , M.; Lotfy , M.; Elnoubi , S.;”An Adaptive Fast and Efficient Spatial Error Concealment Technique for Block-Based Video Coding Systems”, Circuits and Systems, 2009. MWSCAS '09. 52nd IEEE International Midwest Symposium, 2-5 Aug. 2009, pages 663-668.

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[8] Nian Yang; Feng Li;” Research of Video Error Concealment Algorithm for the Remote Education System, IT in Medicine and Education,2008.ITME 2008.IEEE International Symposium,12-14 Dec. 2008,pages 487-490. [9] Shih- Chia Huang Sy -Yen Kuo ,” Optimization of Hybridized Error Concealment for H.264”, Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions, Sept. 2008,Volume 54,Issue:3. [10]Y. Wang,et al,”Error Resilient Video Coding Techniques”,IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 17,pp. 61-82,July 2000. [11]P. Salama,N . Shroff and E.J. Delp,”Error Concealment in Encoded Video Streams”, Proc. IEEE ICIP, vol. 1,pp. 9-12,1995. [12] Y. Xu and Y. Zhou, “H.264 Video Communication Based Refined Error Concealment Schemes”, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 50, issue 4, pp. 1135–1141, November 2004. [13] G. Sullivan, P. Topiwala and A. Luthra , "The H.264/AVC Advanced Video Coding Standard: Overview and Introduction to the Fidelity Range Extensions", SPIE Conference on Applications of Digital Image Processing XXVII, vol. 5, pp. 454-474, November 2004. [14] S. K. Bandyopadhyay , et al, “An error concealment scheme for entire frame losses for H.264/AVC”, IEEE Sarnoff Symposium, pp. 1-4, March 2006.

Web References::

Web References: [1] JM Reference Software version 18.3 http://iphome.hhi.de/suehring/tml/ [2]YUV Video Player http://www.yuvplayer.com/ [3] YUV Test Video Sequences http://trace.eas.asu.edu/yuv/ http://media.xiph.org/video/derf/

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