Psycholinguistics

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Class discussion…:

Is the way we learn an L1 different from how we learn an L2 ? How do psychological factors affect the way we learn language? What thinking processes happen in our brains when we are trying to comprehend or produce language? Class discussion… http://publications.mcgill.ca/reporter/2016/01/42072 /

Psycholinguistics & Teaching ESL/EFL Part I :

Psycholinguistics & Teaching ESL/EFL Part I TC233EN Linguistics for Primary School Teachers Dr. Hala Fawzi

What is psycholinguistics? Psycholinguistics & second language acquisition A very brief history of theories of language acquisition :

What is psycholinguistics? Psycholinguistics & second language acquisition A very brief history of theories of language acquisition

What is Psycholinguistics?:

Combines the fields of psychology and linguistics. The study of the psychological factors that allow humans to learn and use language. Psycholinguistics investigates 3 types of processes in particular: Language Acquisition Language Comprehension and Language Production What is Psycholinguistics?

Slide5:

The field of psychology has influenced multiple approaches to studying second language acquisition. These approaches have focused on such aspects of L2 acquisition as: a. Language acquisition & the brain Much of the research with this focus has addressed which areas of the brain are responsible for what type of linguistic activit y and whether L1 and L2s are housed in the same areas of the brain or are stored in separate locations. https://www.santillana.com.mx/articulos/20

Slide6:

b. L2 learning processes Research with this point of focus claims that learning a language doesn’t differ from learning any other type of “knowledge” . So, learning how to drive a plane or how make machboos or how to speak Chinese all involve the same (or at least similar) mental processes. c. Differences among L2 learners Age, aptitude, motivation, personality, specialization, learning strategies. https://www.santillana.com.mx/articulos16

Slide7:

Psychologists have tried for decades to explain the connection between language and the mind.

Behaviorism:

Behaviorism Psychologist B. F. Skinner developed a theory of language acquisition ( the Behaviorist Theory ) in the late 1950s. “ There is no difference between learning a language and learning anything else ” (Skinner, 1960).

Behaviorism:

Behaviorism Animals and people learn through a process of conditioning. Learning as a process of creating connections between stimuli and responses. Learning is evidenced by a behavior change.

Two main types of learning: :

Two main types of learning: Classical conditioning: (Pavlov-1849-1936) Operant conditioning: (Skinner-1903-1991) Behaviorism

Slide12:

Learned emotional reactions Stimulus  Response  Reinforcement Stimulus  Imitation, Repetition,  Reinforcement (+ or -) Memorization, Controlled Drilling Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eo7jcI8fAuI

Further Readings & Watching(Not in exam):

Further Readings & Watching(Not in exam) Read about Conditioning and Phobias http://www.simplypsychology.org/Classical%20Conditioning.pdf   Watch the video read and learn more about the Little Albert experiment by behaviorist John B. Watson. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qG2SwE_6uVM

Slide14:

Motivation to learn is boosted by external environmental forces (punishment and rewards.) Rewards may increase the strength of connections between stimuli and responses, therefore, learning in this regard is understood to be the product of this process (National Research Council, 2000). However, it is not hilghy recommended to completely rely on them. CC and OC and the Motivation to Learn Emotional reactions interfere with the learning process. As Unpleasant emotional association will interfere with the learning process, they MUST be pleasant.

A-B-C Model :

Behavior is sandwiched between Antecedents ( what happens before the behavior) results in the correct behavior being elicited. Consequences (what comes after the behavior) 1. Antecedents 2. The behaviour 3. Consequences of the behaviour. A-B-C Model Application of CC and OC in Teaching and Learning

Innate Hypothesis Theory,:

Chomsky didn’t like Skinner’s ideas and wrote a long criticism of the behaviorist explanation of language acquisition. “ The theory that humans are biologically equipped with a knowledge of certain universal elements of language structure that is brought into play in the course of native language acquisition.” – LAD http://www.dictionary.com/browse/innateness-hypothesis Innate Hypothesis Theory ,

The cognitive revolution:

Chomsky’s theory actually caused a revolution in the field of psychology (called the cognitive revolution )- language acquisition within the context of a child’s intellectual and psychological development. The cognitive revolution

Theory of Cognitive Development. :

Theory of Cognitive Development . Piaget (a famous Swiss psychologist) came up with the theory of cognitive development . What do you remember about this theory from the Child Development course you took in Year 1? How a child constructs a mental model of the world.

Social Development Theory:

Social Development Theory Lev Vygotsky expanded on the theory of cognitive development by stressing the importance of social interaction in the cognitive development of children. “The community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning" (Vygotsky, 1978).

Social Development Theory:

Lev Vygotsky views interaction with peers as an effective way of developing skills and strategies. He suggests that teachers use cooperative learning exercises where less competent children develop with help from more skillful peers - within the zone of proximal development http://www.simplypsychology.org/Zone-of-Proximal-Development.html Social Development Theory

Theory of Cognitive Development. :

Theory of Cognitive Development . Piaget does not believe that in order for children to acquire language within the zone of proximal development, they must be guided by a peer or a more knowledgeable other.

Piaget & Vygotsky:

While Piaget argues that children learn once they reach a certain stage of cognitive development. Vygotsky believes that children develop as a result of learning. Piaget & Vygotsky

Piaget & Vygotsky:

Piaget believes that children learn through independent explorations and are able to construct knowledge on their own. (so learning comes first ). Vygotsky disagrees and maintains that cognitive development results from internalizing language (so language comes first ). Piaget & Vygotsky

Piaget & Vygotsky:

Piaget & Vygotsky Piaget states that cognitive development is generally universal across cultures . Vygotsky says that cognitive development is influenced by cultural factors.

Further Reading:

https://www.slideshare.net/secret/JkQbOrNPgZdR8 https://www.slideshare.net/secret/JkQbOrNPgZdR8 Further Reading https://www.slideshare.net/secret/Caf2sUi3wdnjt1

Affective Filter Hypothesis:

Affective Filter Hypothesis Stephen Krashen introduced the Affective Filter hypothesis, which states that there are affective variables ( motivation, self-confidence and anxiety ) that play a facilitative role in L2 acquisition.

Affective Filter Hypothesis:

According to this hypothesis, learners with high motivation, high self-confidence, and a low level of anxiety are better prepared to be successful in second language acquisition. Learners with low motivation, low self-confidence, and high anxiety raise their affective filter and form a mental block that can prevent comprehensible input from being processed or used for second language acquisition. Affective Filter Hypothesis

Affective Filter Hypothesis:

In other words, when the affective filter is raised, it can hinder second language acquisition. However, positive affective variables are necessary but not enough on their own for successful second language acquisition to take place. Affective Filter Hypothesis Do you agree or disagree with this hypothesis?

5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis:

5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis An Ineffective Language Teacher An Effective Language Teacher A great deal of comprehensive input A great deal of comprehensive input Low motivation Lack of Self Confidence High Anxiety High Motivation Full of Self Confidence Low Anxiety High language learning filter Lower defense from the students Most input material are blocked in the process Lower filter High defense More input pass the filter Lower performance In the second language acquisition Higher performance In the second language acquisition http://www.etweb.fju.edu.tw/esl_method/student_activities.htm

Slide30:

Psycholinguists are concerned with such topics as: All topics about motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety. Is the way we learn an L1 different from how we learn an L2? What role does our L1 play when we learn/use an L2? How is language processed in the brain? How are multiple languages processed in the brain? How do psychological factors affect the way we learn language? Does the language we speak affect the way we think? What thinking processes happen in our brains when we are trying to comprehend or produce language?

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