Introduction to Linguistics for Primary School Teachers TC2EN233

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Introduction to the Course:

Introduction to the Course TC2EN 233 Linguistics for Primary School Teachers! Dr. Hala Fawzi


What is Linguistics? What is Language? Branches of Linguistics Linguistics and Applied Linguistics: How do they differ? Overview


What is Linguistics?


Linguistics is “the scientific study of language” (Crystal, D. 1997). “The scientific study of human natural language ” ( Akmajian , A. et al, 2010). Wait! language? scientific? Linguistics


What is Language? Can you come up with a definition? Think-pair-share activity-7 minutes


What is Language? You have a definition . Think-group-share activity-10 minutes


"We can define language as a system of communication using sounds or symbols that enables us to express our feelings, thoughts, ideas, and experiences.“ E. Bruce Goldstein “A language consists of symbols that convey meaning , plus rules for combining those symbols , that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages.” Wayne Weiten Language-As defined by Hassan’s group Language-As defined by Alaa’s group


“ Language is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols . ” Edward Sapir (1884-1939): Language: An Introduction to the Study of Speech (1921). 8 Language-As defined by Noora ’ group


Referred to language as“… human vocal noise ( or graphic representation of this noise in writing) used systematically and conventionally by a community for purposes of communication. David Crystal (1989) Language-As defined by group


“ From now on I will consider language to be a set (finite or infinite) of sentences , each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements. ” Noam Chomsky (1928- ): Syntactic Structures (1957) Language-As defined by Haya’s group


OK ?? But what is language in plain English, please? Source: http :// Language-As defined by group


Language, spoken or signed,  is the ***human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication. *** sets it apart from animal languages, which are essentially responses to stimuli) The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Source: http ://


Linguistics is “the scientific study of language” (Crystal, D. 1997). “The scientific study of human natural language ” ( Akmajian , A. et al, 2010). Linguistics


Linguists describe language as it is actually spoken; they do not prescribe how language should be spoken or used. Thus, linguistics is concerned with anything and everything [that]counts as “language”. Crystal, D. (1997). Dictionary of applied linguistics and phonetics. (4 th ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. McGreggor , W. B. (2009). Linguistics: An introduction . London: Continuum Publishing. Linguistics


What is knowledge of language? (Competence/ mental knowledge) How is knowledge of language acquired? (Acquisition) How is knowledge of language put to use? ( Performance /the actual use of language in concrete situations) Aims of linguistic theory


Linguistics is a science that studies languages and has some subfields. Applied Linguistics describes the language, and teaches how it is learned and used. It can be applied to all aspects of language use. It deals with mother, foreign, second language acquisition **Linguistics and Applied Linguistics


’Applied linguistics’ is using what we know about language , how [language] is learned and how [language] is used , in order to achieve some purposes or solve some problems ” (Schmitt & Celce -Murcia, 2010, p. 1). What kinds of purposes or problems are we talking about here? Applied Linguistics


Teaching a second/foreign language – this is our main concern for this course . Making language-related decisions in the classroom or school ( Language learning problems, language teaching problems, language & culture issues, etc.) Applied Linguistics


’Applied linguistics examines the relationship between language and areas as communication , media , social and educational psychology, language and culture , research , language teaching and learning , translation , educational technology and education in general.


What do we study in Linguistics ?


The rules of a language, also called grammar, are learned as one acquires a language. These rules include phonology , the sound system, morphology , the structure of words, syntax , the combination of words into sentences, semantics , the ways in which sounds and meanings are related, and the lexicon, or mental dictionary of words.


The main branches of general linguistics are: Phonetics & Phonology How/where sounds are produced and how they are perceived Morphology The structure of words (parts of words) Syntax How words work together to form sentences (i.e. grammar) Semantics The meaning of words Pragmatics How the meaning of words is influenced by the context Branches of Linguistics


Psycholinguistics The mental processes that take place when using language Neurolinguistics The biological activities that take place in the brain during language processing Historical linguistics How languages change over time Sociolinguistics The relationship between language and society Discourse analysis How long stretches of language (longer than a sentence) work Evolutionary linguistics How languages developed and why humans are the only species that can speak Branches of Linguistics


We will discuss most of these branches in this course! It’ll just be a brief overview of each area  Your final research paper and presentation topics will have to be related to one of these branches!


How are you going to benefit from the knowledge of applied linguistics as an English language teacher? 2 minutes


You will definitely benefit a great deal from the knowledge of linguistics. You will learn about NOT only how language is taught, pronounced or structured , but also how it should be presented to learners. You will know NOT only how each level of the language system is related to other levels , but also how language is closely related to many things outside itself, such as the society , among other things.




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