Special Needs

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Special Educational Needs:

Special Educational Needs Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The Royal Commission at Yanbu Yanbu University College Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah x EDU 301 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Dr. Hala Fawzi

Oveview:

Oveview Special Needs & Learning Disabilities Learning about LD LD diagnose Types of special needs

What are Learning Disabilities?:

What are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities are disorders in one, or more, of the basic psychological processes involved in: understanding, listening, reading, writing, speaking, reasoning or mathematical abilities. Disability: The inability to do something specific such as walk or hear.

Special Needs:

Special Needs The term ‘Special Needs’ is a short form of Special Education Needs. Unfortunately, it is a way to refer to students with disabilities . Learning disability= ‘Special Needs Learning differently==Learners who learn differently

Teaching Special Needs:

Teaching Special Needs Teaching special needs students presents a teacher with some unique and distinctive challenges. These students demand more of your time , patience , and differentiated instruction tailored to their unique learning abilities .

Why learn about students with LD? :

Why learn about students with LD? Learned Helplessness. 3. Because the effective teacher …. a. helps students to learn more/better. b. s hould know when/how to tailor teaching strategies based on each child's unique strengths, weaknesses, and/or learning style. ***Learned helplessness: the expectations based on previous experiences will lead to failure and/or low self-esteem. 2. They feel that they do not have control over their lives, so it is easier to develop……. ?? 1. Simply, they need help!

How are Learning Disabilities Diagnosed?:

How are Learning Disabilities Diagnosed? Two types of assessment: 1. Formal testing 2. Diagnosis through response to intervention (RTI) **RTI: (Responsiveness to Intervention.) Alternate means of determining whether a child has a learning disability and needs special education services.

Types of Childhood Disabilities and other Special Needs:

Types of Childhood Disabilities and other Special Needs Dyslexia Visual Impairments and Blindness Dyscalculia Dysgraphia Down Syndrome Emotional Disturbance Epilepsy ADHD Mental Retardation Speech and Language Impairment Spinal Bifida Gifted Students Remember that a students may have 2 learning disabilities.

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Gifted Students

Strategies for Teaching Gifted Students:

Encourage abstract thinking Strategies for Teaching Gifted Students Be imaginative, flexible and tolerant and unthreatened by their capabilities A strategy that does NOT work : Learning in mixed-ability groups. They learn best with other high-ability peers. Avoid destroying intrinsic motivation with heavy doses of pressure and external rewards Challenge and support

Strategies for Teaching Gifted Students:

Strategies for Teaching Gifted Students Acceleration Move them? YES : Move them? NO: 3. Both? YES.HOW? 4. For very advanced students: the only practical solution is to accelerate their education They enjoy the company of older mates. Studies showed that social and emotional adjustments does not appear to be impaired. Accelerate in 1-2 subjects. Allow enrolment in advanced courses, but keep them with peers in most classes. Give more thought-provoking work. Skipping grades may not be the best solution

Emotional Disturbances :

Emotional Disturbances A term used to describe children with emotional, behavioral, social or mental disorders; like depression and unsocialized aggression problems.

Characteristics of Students with Emotional Disturbances :

Characteristics of Students with Emotional Disturbances Hyperactivity (short attention span) Aggression or self-injurious behavior (acting out, fighting); Withdrawal (not interacting socially with others, excessive fear or anxiety); 4. Immaturity (inappropriate crying, temper tantrums, poor coping skills); and 5. Learning difficulties (academically performing below grade level).

Strategies for teaching students with Emotional Disturbances :

Strategies for teaching students with Emotional Disturbances Test retakes Responses Praise Academic talk Others?

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) :

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Current term for disruptive behaviour disorders marked by over -activity, excessive difficulty sustaining attention or impulsiveness. Girls have the same symptoms, but often they show the symptoms in less obvious ways. This may lead to late identification , thus, miss getting appropriate support.

Strategies for teaching students with (ADHD) :

Strategies for teaching students with (ADHD) Don’t give them long assignments. Help them to see themselves in control. Encourage them to monitor their own learning.

Dyslexia :

Dyslexia Difficulty with written and spoken information. A deficit in language process involving problems with phonological decoding ( “B” for “D”) Symptoms Dyslexia symptoms can range from mild to severe. Some Famous Dyslexics: Albert Einstein was not accepted at college, because he failed his EFL entrance. Leonardo DaVinci who had reversals in his manuscripts.

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Whin I waz gust a litle buy I axed my moder what wuld I be? Amzanig huh yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt . Letter or words Reversals: snow - snoue with - wach friends - frens do - dow live - lave when - win mirror-opposites: s/he might see: 127 instead of 721 saw instead of was lion instead of loin s/he might read: officer as official. approximate as appropriate. fingers as fringe. omitting short words: long words : s/he might abbreviate, e.g. walk for walking omitting short words: s/he might omit function words (opposed to content words) e.g., articles participles conjunctions prepositions b's instead of d's, tac instead of cat

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Writing is slow spelling is bad Difficulty in pronouncing words In grammar s/he has problems with analysis and synthesis Most important of all, there is a big gap between her/his oral and written abilities. Characteristics of Students with Dyslexia Doesn't know how to study Doesn't participate in class Always comes up with excuses for not having done homework

Strategies for teaching students with Dyslexia :

Strategies for teaching students with Dyslexia http:// www.dyslexia-teacher.com/t6.html Multi-sensory teaching method Teaching phonemic awareness Changing a child’ attitude to their own Dyslexia Confidence building Check the link and read about the four teaching methods for teaching children with Dyslexia : Specially designed instruction may be needed to address symptoms of dyslexia

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Questions

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