Cognitive Stages of Development- Piaget

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

No description available.

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Perspectives on learning: the cognitive approach :

Perspectives on learning : the cognitive approach EDU 301 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The Royal Commission at Yanbu Yanbu University College Yanbu Al- Sinaiyah Four Stages of Cognitive Development- Piaget

PowerPoint Presentation:

A representation in the mind of a set of ideas or actions which go together. Schema Assimilation: The process of taking in information into our previously existing schemas. Accommodation: Involves altering schemas as a result of new information or new experiences. Equilibration: A mechanism that assists children in achieving a balance between assimilation and accommodation Piaget’s Key Concepts 2

Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development:

Sensorimotor Period Preoperational Period Concrete Operations Formal Operations (~Birth to 2 yrs) (~2 to 6 yrs) (~ 7-11 yrs) (adolescence to adult) 3 Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development (11+ years) Reflexive responding llt.msu.edu/issues/october2013/index.html

Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development:

Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development No child can skip any of these stages, because each succeeding stage builds on the previous one . 4 4 Piaget’s stage theory is based on the idea that the developing child builds cognitive structures. (schemata) Each stage involves a qualitatively different way of thinking. This child progress through the stages in exactly the order in which they are listed.

1. Infancy: Sensori-motor stage (birth-to age 2):

1. Infancy: Sensori-motor stage (birth-to age 2) Knowledge of the world is developing, but limited because of how it is based on physical interactions, experiences and using the senses. 5 Constructs an understanding of the world by reflexive responding at the beginning, then he/she moves to symbolic thought toward the end of the stage Intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity

1. Infancy: Sensori-motor stage (birth-to age 2):

1. Infancy: Sensori-motor stage (birth-to age 2) During this period the child develops object permanence and general symbolic function. 1. Object permanence : Understanding of that objects exist is the environment whether they perceive them of not. 6 2. General symbolic function: the beginning of language, make-believe play.

1. Infancy: Sensori-motor stage (birth-to age 2):

1. Infancy: Sensori-motor stage (birth-to age 2) 7 4. Beginning of goal-directed actions : Learning to reverse thinking—to reverse a sequence/actions. Ex. Filling and re-filling of a container. 3. Deferred imitation: the ability to imitate actions/language in the absence of the object and situation. Ex. Tantrum/mastering differed imitation.

PowerPoint Presentation:

2. Early childhood: Pre-operational stage (2-7) Limitation in logical thinking Inability to decentre and to conserve the faulty views in regard of egocentrism 8 Intelligenc e is demonstrated through the use of symbols. Language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed….i.e.,

PowerPoint Presentation:

Centration: Egocentric conversations 9 Page 6. Read about evaluation of egocentrism by Hughs (1975) and the examples to try to illustrate the concept. Centration: Focusing on one characteristic to the exclusion of others Egocentrism : It’s having the cognitive ability to hold and understand two apparently opposing views.

Let’s watch this video…:

Let’s watch this video… 10 Piaget’s three-mountain task

PowerPoint Presentation:

11 What is meant by conservation of number? The realization that an object remains the same even if that object changed its appearance. (Applied to length, number, liquid, area, etc.)

What is meant by conservation of number?:

What is meant by conservation of number? Piaget believed that children failed to conserve because (a)t they were unable to hold the properties of the material in their minds and (b) they were unable to mentally reverse an action. 12 When can we say that a child has the ability to decanter? When he can see the world from another person’s point of view, then we can say that he has the ability to decanter.. (Not until the age of 9)

PowerPoint Presentation:

3.The Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 11) 13 Children in this stage are able to conserve and decentrate , they may also be able to use reversibility Focus on the real and concrete , not the abstract In this stage intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic treatment of symbols related to concrete objects. The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. The Formal Operational Stage (11+) Intelligenc e is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts (conceptual reasoning). Adolescents can think hypothetically and they can u se reasoning. 14

Criticisms of Piaget:

Criticisms of Piaget 3. Underestimated the ability of children, and of older individuals 4. Devoted little attention to social and cultural influences. 5. Ignored individual differences. 7. Said very little about how to translate his ideas into classrooms. 15 6. Provided a vague explanation on cognitive maturation. 1. Egocentrism is difficult to be defined. What is actually meant by egocentrism? What is meant by “another person’s point of view?

Applications of the Theory in the Classroom:

Jean Piaget’s theories in school system: the curriculum is based on his stage theory. Applications of the Theory in the Classroom 16 The curriculum is designed to teach students at the first stage and progressively teach new learning to change the schemas in order to move students through each stage. IMPORTAANT Read about limitations and applications in the classroom on your book.

PowerPoint Presentation:

17 Piaget believed that the most important source of cognition is the children themselves. Piaget emphasised the role of an inbuilt (biological) tendency to adapt to the environment, by a process of self-discovery and play. Piaget emphasised universal cognitive change (stage theory)

Maturational Readiness:

Maturational Readiness Maturational Readiness According to Piaget Children cannot learn a concept before they are ready. You cannot speed up development. Teaching a child a concept early prevents the child from discovering it for themselves and thus limits understanding. 18 9/22/2014

PowerPoint Presentation:

19 How can you as a teacher help after you have learned about this theory; with its concepts: schema, adaption, assimilation, equilibrium, disequilibrium and the four stages? The question is….. Clues: The start The transition from one stage to another Students with special needs The syllabus

PowerPoint Presentation:

The ability to think abstractly and systematically solve problems emerges during the ___________ a) concrete operational stage b) sensorimotor stage c) formal operational stage d)preoperational stage 20

PowerPoint Presentation:

Take away Points and Terms 21

authorStream Live Help