The Behaviorist Approach

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Perspectives on Learning the behaviorist approach: 

Perspectives on Learning the behaviorist approach EDU 301 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Dr. Hala Fawzi Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The Royal Commission at Yanbu Yanbu University College Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah x

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2/9/2014 Dr. Hala Fawzi Learning Brief overview of behaviorism Classical Conditioning Learned emotional reactions Operant conditioning Positive &negative reinforcement Schedules of reinforcement Evaluation of classical Conditioning & operant conditioning Applications of behaviorism

Learning: 

When we talk of learning we usually think of something related to the classroom , such as English or Maths. Learning

Learning: 

Learning We use the term 'learning' all the time in everyday life

Learning Theories: 

Learning Theories However, psychologists refer to learning as a relatively enduring change in , in knowledge, behavior and ways of processing the world.

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Behaviorism The Behaviorists are a group of psychologists who focus on the connections between the stimuli (events in the environment) and their responses (made by the individual) . Try to explain the causes of behavior by studying only those behaviors that can be observed and measured, rather than hidden, unobservable cognitive factors. Some psychologists believe that behavior is the sum of many simple stimulus-response connections.

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To understand learning processes, focus on stimulus and responses Assumptions of Behaviorism Learning is a result of environmental events. Learning is evidenced by a behavior change.

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Classical conditioning: (Pavlov) addresses learning of involuntary responses. ( learning by association ) Two main types of learning Operant conditioning : ( Skinner ) addresses learning of voluntary responses. (behavior is controlled by environmental contingencies) The two most famous ones are Pavlov, Watson and Skinner.

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Learned emotional reactions "smell of baking" is linked with "kitchen at home in childhood" associates with “ ... ... and ..... .". (Smell creates powerful conditioning because of the way it is perceived by the brain.) But "sitting at a desk" associates with "classroom at school" and hence perhaps with “...... and ........... ” love care embarrassment failure “Principles can be applied to learned emotional reactions which are the central of the educational process”. Learned emotional reactions are very essential in the educational process. Read the example of learned emotional reactions on page 22. Do progress exercise 2.1

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Classical conditioning involves learning by association, that is associating two events which happen at the same time. Classical conditioning http://www.northern.ac.uk/learning/NCMaterial/Psychology/lifespan%20folder/Learningtheories.htm

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Classical Conditioning - Pavlov https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cP5lCleK-PM

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Learned emotional reactions

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Evaluation of classical conditioning Emotional reactions interfere with the learning process. Individuals' motivation to learn will affect “the” how and the ability to learn. As unpleasant emotional association will interfere with the learning process, they MUST be pleasant.

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Try the following exercise for yourselves: Name the four components of classical conditioning in the following situations. You eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu. However, you develop a dislike for the food and feel nauseated whenever you smell it. What is the: UCS UCR CS CR Exercise

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Try the following exercise for yourselves: Name the four components of classical conditioning in the following situations. Every time someone flushes a toilet in the apartment building, the shower becomes very hot and causes the person to jump back. Over time, the person begins to jump back automatically after hearing the flush, before the water temperature changes. What is the: UCS UCR CS CR Exercise

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Try the following exercise for yourselves: Name the four components of classical conditioning in the following situations. Sara is watching a storm. A bolt of lightening is followed immediately by a huge crash of thunder and makes her jump. This happens several more times. The storm starts to move away and there is a gap between the lightening bolt and the sound of thunder, yet Sara jumps at the lightening bolt. What is the: UCS UCR CS CR Exercise

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Think about the following scenarios and try to apply some of the aspects of classical conditioning: How we acquire likes or dislikes for certain foods? How phobias and fears can be acquired? How phobias and fears could be treated?

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What have you learnt so far? I’ve known about... For next class, watch this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7cOKbiuGhp8

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Evaluation of classical conditioning A learner's motivation to learn and his/her belief in their ability to learn will affect how he/she learns. All unpleasant experiences and emotions associated with learning should be positive. Thus, as a teacher, you need to help in……………

Operant conditioning: 

Operant conditioning Skinner(1903-19901 “Environment's ‘reaction’ to an individual’s behavior controls that individual’s behavior” “any response by an organism that is not directly caused by a stimulus” World English Dictionary

Operant conditioning: 

Operant conditioning Someone does something . (an organism emits a behaviour) and something happens afterwards. Skinner(1903-19901 If the consequences of that behaviour are reinforcing , it is more likely to do it again (emit it again) If the consequences of that behaviour are NOT reinforcing , it is more likely ……..

Operant conditioning: 

Operant conditioning Actions followed by reinforcing are ....................to re-occur Actions followed by unpleasant consequences are .......... likely to re-occur likely less Skinner(1903-19901 According to Skinner: What constitutes Reinforcement or Punishment depends on the individual AND the situation within which the learning took place. Ex. Well done vs. Carless work.

Operant conditioning: 

Operant conditioning What happens immediately before the behavior Both increase the probability that the response will occur again. But they act differently upon the individual to create the same response. How? Positive: Lead to a certain behavior that in the past led to desirable outcomes. Negative: Engages in behavior to avoid previously experienced negative behavior.

Operant conditioning: 

Operant conditioning To analyse the behaviour we need to think about Antecedents, The behaviour and the consequences of the behaviour . This model is known as the ...

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Behavior is sandwiched between Antecedents (a stimulus that comes before the behavior) results in the correct behavior being elicited. Consequences (a stimulus that comes after a behavior) A-B-C Approach 1. Antecedents 2. The behaviour 3. Consequences of the behaviour.

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Operant conditioning in learning Learning is about the increased probability of a behaviour based on reinforcemen t (positive or negative?? Well done or careless?? )which has taken place in the past, so that the * antecedents of the new behaviour include the consequences of previous behaviour. ( * Read more on p.23-24)

Positive and negative reinforcement: 

Schedule of reinforcement ( Continuous/Partial) “ Behavior which is rewarded on a variable schedule is more resistant to extinction” ( behaviour will continue on) Shaping: “ Complex behavior could be broken into smaller component parts which could be selectively reinforced” Positive and negative reinforcement Operant conditioning in learning

Evaluation of operant conditioning: 

Evaluation of operant conditioning Outdated, but enormous and great applications in the classroom. IMPORTANT: Read about the evaluation and summarize them. P:25. Example:

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Open page 26: R ead the example of analyzing behavior. Page 27: How the teacher intervened?

Applications of behaviorism: 

Applications of behaviorism Behavior was controlled by environmental contingencies . (Reward and punishment) Skinner’s concerns : “Were the principles of learning being used effectively to promote learning?” Shaping the desired responses: Skinner believed in utilization of positive reinforcement of shaping the desired responses. p.26 Reinforcement ---repeating behavior. Punishmen t------decreasing repeating of behavior. classroom’s disruptive behavior : To explain and to control it, Skinner sees it in terms of antecedents, behavior and consequences.

Evaluation of applications: 

Evaluation of applications Skinner was interested to apply the principles of learning to the classroom . Children need to be active in the learning process to achieve constant reinforcement and evaluation . Extremely Important: Read each for more details on p.28 ( list the cons and pros of skinner's assumptions) This will be included in your quiz, assignment 1 and/or midterm exam

Evaluation of applications: 

Evaluation of applications Reinforces in schools were not used effectively to enhance the learning process: Why doesn’t a teacher analyze the behavior? Why aren't the students active in the learning process? Do teacher need to have clear objectives? What about errorless learning? Agree/don’t agree? Active learners? Whole class teaching? Teaching machine? Skinner’s belief in Errorless learning? Teaching the curriculum carefully by teachers?

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What have we learnt so far… I know about:

Lecture (s) round –up Take Away Points & Terms: 

Classical Conditioning Learned emotional reactions Applications of behaviorism Operant conditioning Schedules of reinforcement Positive &negative reinforcement Shaping A-B-C Model Lecture (s) round –up Take Away Points & Terms 34 09/02/2014 LING 411-103 Dr. Hala Fawzi

Further reading and (watching)!: 

Further reading and (watching)! Optional: Read about Conditioning and Phobias http://www.simplypsychology.org/Classical%20Conditioning.pdf Watch the video (on the Moodle ), read and learn more about the Little Albert experiment by behaviourist John B. Watson. Watch the video on the Moodle of Prof. Craven College Classical vs Operant Conditioning and Negative reinforcement , also found here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=99sWFCNoJTE&feature=related