participial phrases hadishokri

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This helps students of English to give variety to their writings.

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Chabahar maritime university Participial phrases Lecturer: Dr. Bakhshizade Student: Hadi Shokri February 2014

Participial phrases(Definition):

Participial phrases(Definition) The Participial Phrase: A participal phrase consists of a participal and any modifiers or complements the participle has. The entire phrase is used as an adjective. The participle and its modifiers (modifiers are the words that refer to, or go with , the participle) Examples: Follow ing her brother's directions , Katie arrived at the Medieval Fair. Locat ed in a large field , the fair had many different attractions . The first word in the participial phrase -- ends in - ing or - ed (some - ed verb forms are irregular such as built, spoken, gone, etc.) Examples: Wav ing , the children left school for the summer. Brok en , the window gave a deserted look to the house. A participle is a verb form that acts like an adjective and modifies nouns and pronouns. Present participles end in ing (dancing). Past participle usually end in ed (danced).

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Two action packed sentences that share the same subject : The child skipped all the way home. He smiled as he remembered his wonderful day . Skipping all the way home, the child smiled as he remembered his wonderful day. The child, smiling as he remembered his wonderful day, skipped all the way home. The child skipped all the way home, smiling and remembering his wonderful day.

Different kinds of participial phrases:

Different kinds of participial phrases Introductory Participial Phrase - Comes at the first of the sentence; must have a comma after it; modifies a noun or pronoun that comes immediately after it Roar ing through the night , the tornado ripped through the wheat fields. Dancing around the room, the girl became dizzier and dizzier . Essential Participial Phrase - Comes in the middle or at the end of the sentence; doesn't need comma(s) because information in it is essential (necessary) to the meaning of the sentence and, thus, must not be separated by comma(s ). The woman wearing the long, red, silk dress won Best New Artist of the Year. (Get it? You have to have this phrase in this sentence! It's essential . Without it you'd be asking, "The woman? Which woman?")

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Nonessential Participial Phrase - Comes in the middle or at the end of the sentence; needs comma(s) because information in it is not essential (necessary) to the meaning of the sentence and, thus, must be separated from the rest of the sentence by comma(s ). Cassie Allen , wear ing a beautiful red dress , won Best New Artist of the Year. (This is about Cassie Allen and her Best Artist award. The red dress is not essential. Put commas around it to seal it off from the rest of the sentence!) The Sahara , cover ed by miles and miles of sand , is the largest desert in the world. (Main part of sentence: Sahara is largest desert. Other information: nonessential ).

Misplaced modifiers:

Misplaced modifiers Remember that participles MUST be right next to what they describe: if they don’t, they are MISPLACED. Running down the alley , the garbage can tripped the boy. Now--what does our participial phrase, “ Running down the alley ,” describe? garbage can? boy? Of course, the answer is boy , but our sentence is confusing because our participle is not next to boy . Our participle is misplaced . So--to correct a misplaced participle, place the word you want your participle to describe close to your participle . Running down the alley , the boy fell over the garbage can.

Dangling modifiers:

Dangling modifiers Remember that participles MUST have SOMETHING to describe, if they don’t, they DANGLE . Having studied for the exam , I felt confident about taking it. What does our participle “ Having studied for the exam” describe? It describes I , and we have used our participle correctly. Dancing around the room, it became dizzier and dizzier. What does the participial phrase, “ Dancing around the room ,” describe? it? room? Neither. There is NOTHING for our participial phrase to describe--so we say it DANGLES. Correct the sentence this way: Dancing around the room, the girl became dizzier and dizzier

Dangling modifiers:

Dangling modifiers a word or phrase that modifies another word or phrase that has not been stated clearly within the sentence often occur at the beginnings and ends of sentences often indicated by an - ing verb or a to + verb phrase Having finished dinner, the football game was turned on. Having finished dinner, Joe turned on the football game. Dangling modifiers can be repaired by : placing the subject of the modification phrase as the subject of the independent clause: Having finished dinner, Joe turned on the football game . placing the subject of the action within the dangling phrase: After Joe finished dinner, he turned on the football game.

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