INDIAN REFORMERS

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ITS THE INDIAN REFORMERS

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I WOULD LIKE TO EXPRESS MY SPECIAL THANKS OF GRATITUDE TO MY TEACHER MR.CHANDRAPRAKASH WHO GAVE ME THE GOLDEN OPPORTUNITY TO DO THIS WONDERFUL PROJECT ON THE TOPIC INDIAN SOCIAL REMORMERS, WHICH ALSO HELPED ME IN DOING A LOT OF RESEARCH AND I CAME TO KNOW ABOUT SO MANY NEW THINGS. I AM REALLY THANKFUL TO THEM. SECONDLY I WOULD ALSO LIKE TO THANK MY BROTHER WHO HELPED ME A LOT IN FINISHING THIS PROJECT WITHIN THE LIMITED TIME.

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ISHWAR CHANDRA VIDYASAGAR RAJA RAM MOHAN RAMAKRISHNA DAYANANDA SARASWATI VIVEKANANDA

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ISHWAR CHANDRA VIDYASAGAR  ( ISHSHOR CHÔNDRO BIDDASHAGOR  26 SEPTEMBER 1820 – 29 JULY 1891), BORN ISHWAR CHANDRA BANDOPADHYAY (   ISHSHOR CHÔNDRO BÔNDOPADDHAE ), WAS AN INDIAN BENGALI POLYMATH AND A KEY FIGURE OF THE BENGAL RENAISSANCE.VIDYASAGAR WAS A PHILOSOPHER, ACADEMIC, EDUCATOR, WRITER, TRANSLATOR, PRINTER, PUBLISHER, ENTREPRENEUR, REFORMER, AND PHILANTHROPIST. HIS EFFORTS TO SIMPLIFY AND MODERNIZE BENGALI PROSE WERE SIGNIFICANT. HE ALSO RATIONALIZED AND SIMPLIFIED THE BENGALI ALPHABET AND TYPE, WHICH HAD REMAINED UNCHANGED SINCE CHARLES WILKINS AND PANCHANAN KARMAKAR HAD CUT THE FIRST (WOODEN) BENGALI TYPE IN 1780. HE RECEIVED THE TITLE " VIDYASAGAR " (IN SANSKRIT  VIDYA  MEANS KNOWLEDGE AND  SAGAR  MEANS OCEAN, I.E., OCEAN OF KNOWLEDGE) FROM THE CALCUTTA SANSKRIT COLLEGE (WHERE HE GRADUATED), DUE TO HIS EXCELLENT PERFORMANCE IN SANSKRIT STUDIES AND PHILOSOPHY.

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ISHWAR CHANDRA VIDYASAGAR WAS BORN TO THAKURDAS BANDYOPADHYAY AND BHAGAVATI DEVI AT BIRSINGHA VILLAGE, IN THE GHATAL SUBDIVISION OF PASCHIM MIDNAPORE DISTRICT, ON 26 SEPTEMBER 1820. AT THE AGE OF 6 HE WENT TO CALCUTTA. IN CALCUTTA (PRESENT DAY KOLKATA), ISHWAR STARTED LIVING IN BHAGABAT CHARAN'S HOUSE IN BURRABAZAR, WHERE THAKURDAS HAD ALREADY BEEN STAYING FOR SOME YEARS. ISHWAR FELT AT EASE AMIDST BHAGABAT'S LARGE FAMILY AND SETTLED DOWN COMFORTABLY IN NO TIME. BHAGABAT'S YOUNGEST DAUGHTER RAIMONI'S MOTHERLY AND AFFECTIONATE FEELINGS TOWARDS ISHWAR TOUCHED HIM DEEPLY AND HAD A STRONG INFLUENCE ON HIS LATER REVOLUTIONARY WORK TOWARDS THE UPLIFTMENT OF WOMEN'S STATUS IN INDIA. HIS QUEST FOR KNOWLEDGE WAS SO INTENSE THAT HE USED TO STUDY UNDER A STREET LIGHT AS IT WAS NOT POSSIBLE FOR HIM TO AFFORD A GAS LAMP AT HOME. HE CLEARED ALL THE EXAMINATIONS WITH EXCELLENCE AND IN QUICK SUCCESSION. HE WAS REWARDED WITH A NUMBER OF SCHOLARSHIPS FOR HIS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE. TO SUPPORT HIMSELF AND THE FAMILY, ISHWAR CHANDRA ALSO TOOK A PART-TIME JOB OF TEACHING AT JORASHANKO. ISHWAR CHANDRA JOINED THE SANSKRIT COLLEGE, CALCUTTA AND STUDIED THERE FOR TWELVE LONG YEARS AND PASSED OUT OF THE COLLEGE IN 1841 QUALIFYING IN SANSKRIT GRAMMAR, LITERATURE, RHETORIC [ALANKARA SHASTRA], VEDANTA, SMRUTI AND ASTRONOMY

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IN THE YEAR 1839, ISHWAR CHANDRA VIDYASAGAR SUCCESSFULLY CLEARED HIS LAW EXAMINATION. IN 1841, AT THE AGE OF TWENTY ONE YEARS, ISHWAR CHANDRA JOINED FORT WILLIAM COLLEGE AS HEAD OF THE SANSKRIT DEPARTMENT. AFTER FIVE YEARS, IN 1846, VIDYASAGAR LEFT FORT WILLIAM COLLEGE AND JOIN THE SANSKRIT COLLEGE AS 'ASSISTANT SECRETARY'. IN THE FIRST YEAR OF SERVICE, ISHWAR CHANDRA RECOMMENDED A NUMBER OF CHANGES TO THE EXISTING EDUCATION SYSTEM. THIS REPORT RESULTED INTO A SERIOUS ALTERCATION BETWEEN ISHWAR CHANDRA AND COLLEGE SECRETARY RASOMOY DUTTA. IN 1849, HE AGAIN JOINED SANSKRIT COLLEGE, AS A PROFESSOR OF LITERATURE. IN 1851, ISHWAR CHANDRA BECAME THE PRINCIPAL OF SANSKRIT COLLEGE. IN 1855, HE WAS MADE SPECIAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS WITH ADDITIONAL CHARGES. BUT FOLLOWING THE MATTER OF RASOMOY DUTTA, VIDYASAGAR RESIGNED FROM SANSKRIT COLLEGE AND REJOINED FORT WILLIAM COLLEGE AS A HEAD CLERK.

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VIDYASAGAR IN CALCUTTA AND MANY OTHER REFORMERS IN BOMBAY SET UP SCHOOLS FOR GIRLS. VIDHYASAGAR WAS ASSOCIATED WITH OTHER REFORMERS, WHO FOUNDED SCHOOLS FOR GIRLS LIKE RAMGOPAL GHOSH,MADAN MOHAN TARKALANKAR, DAKSHINARANJAN MUKHERJEE, JOHN ELLIOT DRINKWATER BETHUNE AND OTHERS. WHEN THE FIRST SCHOOLS WERE OPENED IN THE MID NINETEENTH CENTURY, MANY PEOPLE WERE AFRAID OF THEM. THEY FEARED THAT SCHOOLS WOULD TAKE AWAY GIRLS FROM HOME AND PREVENT THEM FROM DOING THEIR DOMESTIC DUTIES. MOREOVER, GIRLS WOULD HAVE TO TRAVEL THROUGH PUBLIC PLACES IN ORDER TO REACH SCHOOL. THEY THOUGHT THAT GIRLS SHOULD STAY AWAY FROM PUBLIC SPACES. THEREFORE, MOST EDUCATED WOMEN WERE TAUGHT AT HOME BY THEIR LIBERAL FATHERS OR HUSBANDS.

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IN 1841, VIDYASAGAR TOOK THE JOB OF A SANSKRIT PANDIT (PROFESSOR) AT JST JOHN WILLIAM COLLEGE IN KOLKATA (CALCUTTA). IN 1846, HE JOINED THE SANSKRIT COLLEGE AS ASSISTANT SECRETARY. A YEAR LATER, HE AND A FRIEND OF HIS, MADAN MOHAN TARKALANKAR, SET UP THE SANSKRIT PRESS AND DEPOSITORY , A PRINT SHOP AND A BOOKSTORE. WHILE VIDYASAGAR WAS WORKING AT THE SANSKRIT COLLEGE, SOME SERIOUS DIFFERENCES AROSE BETWEEN HIM AND  RASAMOY DUTTA  WHO WAS THEN THE SECRETARY OF THE COLLEGE, AND SO HE RESIGNED IN 1849. ONE OF THE ISSUES WAS THAT WHILE RASAMOY DUTTA WANTED THE COLLEGE TO REMAIN A BRAHMIN PRESERVE, VIDYASAGAR WANTED IT TO BE OPENED TO STUDENTS FROM ALL CASTES. LATER, VIDYASAGAR REJOINED THE COLLEGE, AND INTRODUCED MANY FAR-REACHING CHANGES TO THE COLLEGE'S SYLLABUS.

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In the face of opposition from the Hindu establishment, Vidyasagar vigorously promoted the idea that regardless of their caste, both men and women should receive the best education. His remarkable clarity of vision is instanced by his brilliant plea for teaching of science, mathematics and the philosophies of John Locke and David Hume, to replace most of ancient Hindu philosophy. His own books, written for primary school children, reveal a strong emphasis on enlightened materialism, with scant mention of God and religious verities – a fact that posits him as a pioneer of the Indian Renaissance

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A COMPASSIONATE REFORMIST ISHWAR CHANDRA VIDYASAGAR FELT VERY SORRY AND COMPASSIONATE WHENEVER HE SAW POOR AND WEAK PEOPLE WERE IN DISTRESS. THOUGH HE WAS VERY OUTSPOKEN AND BLUNT IN HIS MANNERISMS, HE WAS KNOWN TO BE KIND MAN [CITATION NEEDED]. HE WAS ALSO KNOWN FOR HIS CHARITY AND PHILANTHROPY AS "DAYA-R SAGAR" OR "KARUNAR SAGAR" – OCEAN OF KINDNESS, FOR HIS IMMENSE GENEROSITY [CITATION NEEDED]. HE ALWAYS REFLECTED AND RESPONDED TO DISTRESS CALLS OF THE POOR, SUFFERINGS OF THE SICK AND INJUSTICE TO HUMANITY. WHILE BEING A STUDENT AT SANSKRIT COLLEGE, HE WOULD SPEND PART OF HIS SCHOLARSHIP PROCEEDS AND COOK PAAYESH (RICE PUDDING) TO FEED THE POOR AND BUY MEDICINES FOR THE SICK [CITATION NEEDED]. LATER ON, WHEN HE STARTED EARNING, HE PAID FIXED SUMS OF MONTHLY ALLOWANCES TO EACH MEMBER OF HIS JOINT FAMILY, TO FAMILY SERVANTS, TO NEEDY NEIGHBOURS, TO VILLAGERS WHO NEEDED HELP AND TO HIS VILLAGE SURGERY AND SCHOOL. THIS HE CONTINUED WITHOUT BREAK EVEN WHEN HE WAS UNEMPLOYED AND HAD TO BORROW SUBSTANTIALLY FROM TIME TO TIME. VIDYASAGAR DID NOT BELIEVE THAT MONEY WAS ENOUGH TO EASE THE SUFFERINGS OF HUMANITY. HE OPENED THE DOORS OF THE SANSKRIT COLLEGE TO LOWER CASTE STUDENTS (PREVIOUSLY IT WAS EXCLUSIVE TO THE BRAHMINS), NURSED SICK CHOLERA PATIENTS, WENT TO CREMATORIUMS TO BURY UNCLAIMED DEAD BODIES, DINED WITH THE UNTOUCHABLES AND WALKED MILES AS A MESSENGER-MAN TO TAKE URGENT MESSAGES TO PEOPLE WHO WOULD BENEFIT FROM THEM. WHEN THE EMINENT INDIAN POET OF THE 19TH CENTURY, MICHAEL MADHUSUDAN DUTTA, FELL HOPELESSLY INTO DEBTS DUE TO HIS RECKLESS LIFESTYLE DURING HIS STAY IN VERSAILLES, FRANCE, HE APPEALED FOR HELP TO VIDYASAGAR, WHO LABOURED TO ENSURE THAT SUMS OWED TO MICHAEL FROM HIS PROPERTY AT HOME WERE REMITTED TO HIM AND SENT HIM A LARGE SUM OF MONEY TO FRANCE.

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VIDYASAGAR CHAMPIONED THE UPLIFT OF THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN INDIA, PARTICULARLY IN HIS NATIVE PLACE BENGAL. UNLIKE SOME OTHER REFORMERS WHO SOUGHT TO SET UP ALTERNATIVE SOCIETIES OR SYSTEMS, HE SOUGHT, HOWEVER, TO TRANSFORM ORTHODOX HINDU SOCIETY "FROM WITHIN". WITH VALUABLE MORAL SUPPORT FROM PEOPLE LIKE AKSHAY KUMAR DUTTA, VIDYASAGAR INTRODUCED THE PRACTICE OF WIDOW REMARRIAGES TO MAINSTREAM HINDU SOCIETY. IN EARLIER TIMES, REMARRIAGES OF WIDOWS WOULD OCCUR SPORADICALLY ONLY AMONG PROGRESSIVE MEMBERS OF THE BRAHMO SAMAJ. THE PREVAILING DEPLORABLE CUSTOM OF KULIN BRAHMIN POLYGAMY ALLOWED ELDERLY MEN — SOMETIMES ON THEIR DEATHBEDS — TO MARRY TEENAGE OR EVEN PREPUBESCENT GIRLS, SUPPOSEDLY TO SPARE THEIR PARENTS THE SHAME OF HAVING AN UNMARRIED GIRL ATTAIN PUBERTY IN THEIR HOUSE. AFTER SUCH MARRIAGES, THESE GIRLS WOULD USUALLY BE LEFT BEHIND IN THEIR PARENTAL HOMES, WHERE THEY MIGHT BE CRUELLY SUBJECTED TO ORTHODOX RITUALS, ESPECIALLY IF THEY WERE SUBSEQUENTLY WIDOWED. THESE INCLUDED A SEMI STARVATION, HARD DOMESTIC LABOUR, AND CLOSE RESTRICTION ON THEIR FREEDOM TO LEAVE THE HOUSE OR BE SEEN BY STRANGERS. UNABLE TO TOLERATE THE ILL TREATMENT, MANY OF THESE GIRLS WOULD RUN AWAY AND TURN TO PROSTITUTION TO SUPPORT THEMSELVES. IRONICALLY, THE ECONOMIC PROSPERITY AND LAVISH LIFESTYLES OF THE CITY MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR MANY OF THEM TO HAVE QUITE SUCCESSFUL CAREERS ONCE THEY HAD STEPPED OUT OF THE SANCTION OF SOCIETY AND INTO THE DEMI-MONDE. IN 1853 IT WAS ESTIMATED THAT CALCUTTA HAD A POPULATION OF 12,718 PROSTITUTES AND PUBLIC WOMEN. VIDYASAGAR TOOK THE INITIATIVE IN PROPOSING AND PUSHING THE WIDOW REMARRIAGE ACT XV OF 1856 (26 JULY) IN INDIA. HE ALSO DEMONSTRATED THAT THE SYSTEM OF POLYGAMY WITHOUT RESTRICTION WAS NOT SANCTIONED BY THE ANCIENT HINDU SHASTRAS.

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BORN: MAY 22, 1772 DIED: SEPTEMBER 27, 1833 ACHIEVEMENTS: FOUNDED ATMIYA SABHA AND BRAHMA SAMAJ. PLAYED A KEY ROLE IN ABOLITION AND SATI. FOUGHT FOR THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN.  RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY IS KNOWN AS THE 'MAKER OF MODERN INDIA'. HE WAS THE FOUNDER OF THE BRAHMO SAMAJ, ONE OF THE FIRST INDIAN SOCIO-RELIGIOUS REFORM MOVEMENTS. HE PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE IN ABOLISHING THE ROLE OF SATI. RAJA RAMMOHAN ROY WAS A GREAT SCHOLAR AND AN INDEPENDENT THINKER. HE ADVOCATED THE STUDY OF ENGLISH, SCIENCE, WESTERN MEDICINE AND TECHNOLOGY. HE WAS GIVEN THE TITLE 'RAJA' BY THE MUGHAL EMPEROR.  RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY WAS BORN ON MAY 22, 1772 IN VILLAGE RADHANAGAR IN THE DISTRICT OF HOOGHLY IN BENGAL. HIS FATHER RAMKANTO ROY, WAS A VAISHNAVITE, WHILE HIS MOTHER, TARINI, WAS FROM A SHAKTA BACKGROUND. RAJA RAM MOHUN ROY WAS SENT TO PATNA FOR HIGHER STUDIES. BY THE AGE OF FIFTEEN, RAJA RAMMOHUN ROY HAD LEARNT BANGLA, PERSIAN, ARABIC AND SANSKRIT. RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY WAS AGAINST IDOL WORSHIP AND ORTHODOX HINDU RITUALS. HE STOOD FIRMLY AGAINST ALL SORT OF SOCIAL BIGOTRY, CONSERVATISM AND SUPERSTITIONS. BUT HIS FATHER WAS AN ORTHODOX HINDU BRAHMIN. THIS LED TO DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY AND HIS FATHER. FOLLOWING DIFFERENCES HE LEFT THE HOUSE . HE WANDERED AROUND HIMALAYAS AND WENT TO TIBET. HE TRAVELED WIDELY BEFORE RETURNING HOME.

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AFTER HIS RETURN RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY'S FAMILY MARRIED HIM IN THE HOPE THAT HE WOULD CHANGE. BUT THIS DID NOT HAVE ANY EFFECT ON HIM. RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY WENT TO VARANASI AND STUDIED THE VEDAS, THE UPANISHADS AND HINDU PHILOSOPHY DEEPLY. WHEN HIS FATHER DIED IN 1803 HE RETURNED TO MURSHIDABAD. HE THEN WORKED AS A MONEYLENDER IN CALCUTTA, AND FROM 1809 TO 1814, HE SERVED IN THE REVENUE DEPARTMENT OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY.  IN 1814, RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY FORMED ATMIYA SABHA. ATMIYA SABHA TRIED TO INITIATE SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS REFORMS IN THE SOCIETY. RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY CAMPAIGNED FOR RIGHTS FOR WOMEN, INCLUDING THE RIGHT FOR WIDOWS TO REMARRY, AND THE RIGHT FOR WOMEN TO HOLD PROPERTY. HE ACTIVELY OPPOSED SATI SYSTEM AND THE PRACTICE OF POLYGAMY. HE ALSO SUPPORTED EDUCATION, PARTICULARLY EDUCATION OF WOMEN. HE BELIEVED THAT ENGLISH-LANGUAGE EDUCATION WAS SUPERIOR TO THE TRADITIONAL INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM, AND HE OPPOSED THE USE OF GOVERNMENT FUNDS TO SUPPORT SCHOOLS TEACHING SANSKRIT. IN 1822, HE FOUNDED A SCHOOL BASED ON ENGLISH EDUCATION. IN 1828, RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY FOUNDED THE 'BRAHMA SAMAJ'. THROUGH 'BRAHMA SAMAJ, HE WANTED TO EXPOSE THE RELIGIOUS HYPOCRISIES AND CHECK THE GROWING INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY ON THE HINDU SOCIETY. RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY'S EFFORTS BORE FRUIT WHEN IN 1829, THE SATI SYSTEM WAS ABOLISHED . IN NOVEMBER 1830 RAM MOHAN ROY TRAVELED TO THE UNITED KINGDOM AS AN AMBASSADOR OF THE MUGHAL EMPEROR TO PLEAD FOR HIS PENSION AND ALLOWANCES. RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY PASSED AWAY ON SEPTEMBER 27, 1833 AT STAPLETON NEAR BRISTOL DUE TO MENINGITIS .

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SOCIAL REFORMS OF RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY ROY DEMANDED PROPERTY INHERITANCE RIGHTS FOR WOMEN AND, IN 1828, SET UP THE BRAHMO SABHA, WHICH WAS A MOVEMENT OF REFORMIST BENGALI'S FORMED TO FIGHT AGAINST SOCIAL EVILS. ROY'S POLITICAL BACKGROUND INFLUENCED HIS SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS APPROACH TO REFORMS OF HINDUISM. HE WROTE: "THE PRESENT SYSTEM OF HINDUS [SIC] IS NOT WELL CALCULATED TO PROMOTE THEIR POLITICAL INTERESTS…. IT IS NECESSARY THAT SOME CHANGE SHOULD TAKE PLACE IN THEIR RELIGION, AT LEAST FOR THE SAKE OF THEIR POLITICAL ADVANTAGE AND SOCIAL COMFORT RAMMOHAN ROY'S EXPERIENCE WORKING WITH THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT TAUGHT HIM THAT HINDU TRADITIONS WERE OFTEN NOT RESPECTED OR CONSIDERED TO BE CREDIBLE BY WESTERN STANDARDS; THIS AFFECTED HIS RELIGIOUS REFORMS. HE WANTED TO LEGITIMIZE HINDU TRADITIONS TO HIS EUROPEAN ACQUAINTANCES BY PROVING THAT THE "SUPERSTITIOUS PRACTICES WHICH DEFORM THE HINDU [SIC] RELIGION HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH THE PURE SPIRIT OF ITS DICTATES!

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THE "SUPERSTITIOUS PRACTICES" TO WHICH RAM MOHAN ROY OBJECTED INCLUDED SATI, CASTE RIGIDITY, POLYGAMY AND CHILD MARRIAGES. THESE PRACTICES WERE OFTEN THE REASONS BRITISH OFFICIALS CLAIMED MORAL SUPERIORITY OVER THE INDIAN NATION. RAM MOHAN ROY'S IDEAS OF RELIGION SOUGHT TO CREATE A FAIR AND JUST SOCIETY BY IMPLEMENTING HUMANITARIAN PRACTICES SIMILAR TO CHRISTIAN IDEALS AND THUS LEGITIMIZE HINDUISM IN THE MODERN WORLD

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EDUCATIONALIST ROY BELIEVED EDUCATION TO BE A MEANS OF CREATING SOCIAL REFORM. IN 1817, IN COLLABORATION WITH DAVID HARE, HE SET UP THE HINDU COLLEGE AT CALCUTTA. IN 1822, ROY FOUNDED THE ANGLO-HINDU SCHOOL, FOLLOWED FOUR YEARS LATER BY THE VEDANTA COLLEGE, WHERE HE INSISTED THAT HIS TEACHINGS OF MONOTHEISTIC DOCTRINES BE INCORPORATED WITH "MODERN, WESTERN CURRICULUM"; VEDANTA COLLEGE OFFERED COURSES AS A SYNTHESIS OF WESTERN AND INDIAN LEARNING. IN 1830, HE HELPED ALEXANDER DUFF IN ESTABLISHING THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY'S INSTITUTION, BY PROVIDING HIM THE VENUE VACATED BY  BRAHMA SABHA  AND GETTING THE FIRST BATCH OF STUDENTS. ROY SUPPORTED THE INCORPORATION OF WESTERN LEARNING INTO INDIAN EDUCATION. HE ADVOCATED THE STUDY OF ENGLISH, SCIENCE, WESTERN MEDICINE ANDTECHNOLOGY. HE SPENT HIS MONEY ON A COLLEGE TO PROMOTE THESE STUDIES.

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JOURNALIST ROY PUBLISHED MAGAZINES IN ENGLISH, HINDI, PERSIAN, AND BENGALI. HE PUBLISHED THE BRAHMONICAL MAGAZINE IN ENGLISH IN 1821. ANOTHER NOTABLE MAGAZINE OF HIS WAS THE SAMBAD KAUMUDI, ALSO PUBLISHED IN 1821. IN 1822, RAM MOHAN PUBLISHED MIRAT-UL-AKBAR IN THE PERSIAN LANGUAGE. BRAHMONICAL MAGAZINE CEASED TO EXIST AFTER PUBLICATION OF A FEW ISSUES. BUT SAMBAD KAUMUDI, A NEWS WEEKLY, COVERED TOPICS SUCH AS FREEDOM OF THE PRESS, THE INDUCTION OF INDIANS INTO HIGH RANKS OF SERVICE AND SEPARATION OF THE EXECUTIVE AND JUDICIARY. SAMBAD KAUMUDI BECAME BI-WEEKLY IN JANUARY 1830 AND CONTINUED TO BE PUBLISHED FOR 33 YEARS. HE PUBLISHED A NEWSPAPER TO REGISTER HIS PROTEST AGAINST THE INTRODUCTION OF PRESS ORDINANCE OF 1823. THE ORDINANCE STATED THAT A LICENSE FROM THE GOVERNOR GENERAL IN COUNCIL WOULD BE REQUIRED TO PUBLISH ANY NEWSPAPER. WHEN THE ENGLISH COMPANY CENSORED THE PRESS, RAMMOHAN COMPOSED TWO MEMORIALS AGAINST THIS IN 1829 AND 1830 RESPECTIVELY. AS AN ACTIVIST, HE STEADILY OPPOSED SOCIAL ISSUES LIKE SATI AND CHILD MARRIAGE……

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DAYANAND SARASWATI ABOUT THIS SOUND (12 FEBRUARY 1824 – 30 OCTOBER 1883) WAS AN IMPORTANT HINDU RELIGIOUS LEADER OF HIS TIME. HE IS WELL KNOWN AS THE FOUNDER OF THE ARYA SAMAJ, A HINDU REFORM MOVEMENT OF THE VEDIC TRADITION. HE WAS A PROFOUND SCHOLAR OF THE VEDIC LORE AND SANSKRIT LANGUAGE. HE WAS THE FIRST TO GIVE THE CALL FOR SWARAJYA AS "INDIA FOR INDIANS" – IN 1876, LATER TAKEN UP BY LOKMANYA TILAK. DENOUNCING THE IDOLATRY AND RITUALISTIC WORSHIP PREVALENT IN HINDUISM AT THE TIME, HE WORKED TOWARDS REVIVING VEDIC IDEOLOGIES. SUBSEQUENTLY THE PHILOSOPHER AND PRESIDENT OF INDIA, S. RADHAKRISHNAN, CALLED HIM ONE OF THE "MAKERS OF MODERN INDIA," AS DID SRI AUROBINDO.THOSE WHO WERE INFLUENCED BY AND FOLLOWED DAYANANDA INCLUDED MADAM CAMA, PANDIT GURU DUTT VIDYARTHI, VINAYAK DAMODAR SAVARKAR, LALA HARDAYAL, MADAN LAL DHINGRA, RAM PRASAD BISMIL, BHAGAT SINGH, MAHADEV GOVIND RANADE SWAMI SHRADDHANAND, MAHATMA HANSRAJ, LALA LAJPAT RAI AND OTHERS. ONE OF HIS MOST INFLUENTIAL WORKS IS THE BOOK SATYARTH PRAKASH, WHICH CONTRIBUTED TO THE INDIAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT. HE WAS A SANYASI (ASCETIC) FROM BOYHOOD, AND A SCHOLAR, WHO BELIEVED IN THE INFALLIBLE AUTHORITY OF THE VEDAS. MAHARSHI DAYANANDA ADVOCATED THE DOCTRINE OF KARMA (KARMASIDDHANTA IN HINDUISM) AND REINCARNATION (PUNARJANMA IN HINDUISM). HE EMPHASIZED THE VEDIC IDEALS OF BRAHMACHARYA (CELIBACY ) AND DEVOTION TO GOD. THE THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY AND THE ARYA SAMAJ WERE UNITED FROM 1878 TO 1882, BECOMING THE THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF THE ARYA SAMAJ.

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AMONG MAHARSHI DAYANANDA'S CONTRIBUTIONS ARE HIS PROMOTING OF THE EQUAL RIGHTS FOR WOMEN, SUCH AS THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION AND READING OF INDIAN SCRIPTURES, AND HIS INTUITIVE COMMENTARY ON THE VEDAS FROM VEDIC SANSKRIT IN SANSKRIT  AS WELL AS HINDI SO THAT THE COMMON MAN MIGHT BE ABLE TO READ THEM. DAYANAND WAS THE FIRST TO GIVE THE WORD OF SWADESHI LONG BEFORE MAHATMA GANDHI. DAYANAND'S MISSION WAS NOT TO START OR SET UP ANY NEW RELIGION BUT TO ASK HUMANKIND FOR UNIVERSAL BROTHERHOOD THROUGH NOBILITY AS SPELT OUT IN VEDAS. FOR THAT MISSION HE FOUNDED ARYA SAMAJ ENUNCIATING THE TEN UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES AS A CODE FOR UNIVERSALISM KRINVANTO VISHWARYAM MEANING THE WHOLE WORLD BE AN ABODE FOR NOBLES (ARYAS). HIS NEXT STEP WAS TO TAKE UP THE DIFFICULT TASK OF REFORMING HINDUISM WITH DEDICATION DESPITE MULTIPLE REPEATED ATTEMPTS ON HIS PERSONAL LIFE. HE TRAVELED THE COUNTRY CHALLENGING RELIGIOUS SCHOLARS AND PRIESTS TO DISCUSSIONS AND WON REPEATEDLY ON THE STRENGTH OF HIS ARGUMENTS BASED ON HIS KNOWLEDGE OF SANSKRIT AND VEDAS HE BELIEVED THAT HINDUISM HAD BEEN CORRUPTED BY DIVERGENCE FROM THE FOUNDING PRINCIPLES OF THE VEDAS AND THAT HINDUS HAD BEEN MISLED BY THE PRIESTHOOD FOR THE PRIESTS' SELF-AGGRANDIZEMENT. HINDU PRIESTS DISCOURAGED THE LAITY FROM READING VEDIC SCRIPTURES AND ENCOURAGED RITUALS, SUCH AS BATHING IN THE GANGES RIVER AND FEEDING OF PRIESTS ON ANNIVERSARIES, WHICH DAYANANDA PRONOUNCED AS SUPERSTITIONS OR SELF-SERVING PRACTICES. BY EXHORTING THE NATION TO REJECT SUCH SUPERSTITIOUS NOTIONS, HIS AIM WAS TO EDUCATE THE NATION TO GO BACK TO THE VEDAS . HE WANTED THE PEOPLE WHO FOLLOWED HINDUISM TO GO BACK TO ITS ROOTS AND TO FOLLOW THE VEDIC LIFE, WHICH HE POINTED OUT. HE EXHORTED THE HINDU NATION TO ACCEPT SOCIAL REFORMS, INCLUDING THE IMPORTANCE OF COWS FOR NATIONAL PROSPERITY AS WELL AS THE ADOPTION OF HINDI AS THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE FOR NATIONAL INTEGRATION

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THROUGH HIS DAILY LIFE AND PRACTICE OF YOGA AND ASANAS, TEACHINGS, PREACHING, SERMONS AND WRITINGS, HE INSPIRED THE HINDU NATION TO ASPIRE TO  SWARAJYA  (SELF GOVERNANCE), NATIONALISM, AND SPIRITUALISM. HE ADVOCATED THE EQUAL RIGHTS AND RESPECTS TO WOMEN AND ADVOCATED THE EDUCATION OF A GIRL CHILD LIKE THE MALES. SWAMI DAYANAND DID LOGICAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CRITICAL ANALYSES OF FAITHS I.E. CHRISTIANITY & ISLAM AS WELL AS OF OTHER INDIAN FAITHS LIKE JAINISM, BUDDHISM AND SIKHISM. IN ADDITION TO DISCOURAGINGIDOLATRY IN HINDUISM, AS MAY BE SEEN IN HIS BOOK  SATYARTH PRAKASH . HE WAS AGAINST WHAT HE CONSIDERED TO BE THE CORRUPTION OF THE TRUE AND PURE FAITH IN HIS OWN COUNTRY. UNLIKE MANY OTHER REFORM MOVEMENTS OF HIS TIMES WITHIN HINDUISM, THE ARYA SAMAJ'S APPEAL WAS ADDRESSED NOT ONLY TO THE EDUCATED FEW IN INDIA, BUT TO THE WORLD AS A WHOLE AS EVIDENCED IN THE SIXTH PRINCIPLE OF THE ARYA SAMAJ. IN FACT HIS TEACHINGS PROFESSED UNIVERSALISM FOR THE ALL LIVING BEINGS AND NOT FOR ANY PARTICULAR SECT, FAITH, COMMUNITY OR NATION. ARYA SAMAJ ALLOWS AND ENCOURAGES CONVERTS TO HINDUISM. DAYANANDA’S CONCEPT OF DHARMA IS STATED IN THE "BELIEFS AND DISBELIEFS" SECTION OF  SATYARTHA PRAKASH . DAYANANDA'S VEDIC MESSAGE WAS TO EMPHASIZE RESPECT AND REVERENCE FOR OTHER HUMAN BEINGS, SUPPORTED BY THE VEDIC NOTION OF THE DIVINE NATURE OF THE INDIVIDUAL–DIVINE BECAUSE THE BODY WAS THE TEMPLE WHERE THE HUMAN ESSENCE (SOUL OR "ATMA") HAD THE POSSIBILITY TO INTERFACE WITH THE CREATOR ("PARAMATMA”). IN THE TEN PRINCIPLES OF THE ARYA SAMAJ, HE ENSHRINED THE IDEA THAT "ALL ACTIONS SHOULD BE PERFORMED WITH THE PRIME OBJECTIVE OF BENEFITING MANKIND", AS OPPOSED TO FOLLOWING DOGMATIC RITUALS OR REVERING IDOLS AND SYMBOLS. THE FIRST FIVE PRINCIPLES SPEAK OF TRUTH AND THE OTHER FIVE OF A SOCIETY WITH NOBILITY, CIVICS, CO-LIVING AND DISCIPLINED LIFE. IN HIS OWN LIFE, HE INTERPRETED  MOKSHA  TO BE A LOWER CALLING (DUE TO ITS BENEFIT TO ONE INDIVIDUAL) THAN THE CALLING TO EMANCIPATE OTHERS. DAYANANDA'S "BACK TO THE VEDAS" MESSAGE INFLUENCED MANY THINKERS AND PHILOSOPHERS THE WORLD OVER. ONE OF THE REMARKABLE DEBATE OCCURRED ON 22 OCTOBER 1869 IN VARANASI, WHERE HE HAD WON A DEBATE AGAINST 27 SCHOLARS AND ABOUT 12 EXPERT PANDITS. THE DEBATE WAS ATTENDED BY OVER 50,000 PEOPLE. THE MAIN TOPIC WAS "DO THE VEDAS UPHOLD DIETY WORSHIP?

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SWAMI DAYANANDA'S CREATIONS, THE ARYA SAMAJ, UNEQUIVOCALLY CONDEMNS PRACTICES OF DIFFERENT RELIGIONS AND COMMUNITIES THAT ARE NOTED TO BE PREVALENT, SUCH AS IDOL WORSHIP, ANIMAL SACRIFICE,ANCESTOR WORSHIP, PILGRIMAGES, PRIEST CRAFT, OFFERINGS MADE IN TEMPLES, THE CASTES, CHILD MARRIAGES, MEAT EATING AND DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN ON THE GROUNDS THAT ALL THESE LACKED ORIGINALHINDUISM. THE ARYA SAMAJ DISCOURAGES DOGMA AND SYMBOLISM AND ENCOURAGES SKEPTICISM IN BELIEFS THAT RUN CONTRARY TO COMMON SENSE AND LOGIC. TO MANY PEOPLE, THE ARYA SAMAJ AIMS TO BE A "UNIVERSAL SOCIETY" BASED ON THE AUTHORITY OF THE VEDAS. HOWEVER, IN POPULAR CULTURE, IT IS CONSIDERED A SHORT CUT WAY OF GETTING MARRIED FOR RUNAWAY LOVERS. MARRIAGE CERTIFICATE ISSUED BY ARYA SAMAJ IS VALID FOR 60 DAYS AFTER WHICH IT NEEDS TO BE RATIFIED BY THE CONCERNED REGISTRAR OF MARRIAGES WHICH, IN TURN, ISSUES THE FORMAL CERTIFICATE OF MARRIAGE.HOWEVER, SWAMI DAYANANAND SHOWED EXTREME RATIONALISM AND PARADOXICALLY MADE MANY ASSUMPTIONS WHILE INTERPRETING THE VEDA. HE ALSO PARTIALLY ACCEPTED THE AUTHORITY OF THE SHASTRAS AND THE COMMENTARIES OF SAYANA. THE SHASTRAS, MUCH LIKE THE VEDAS ACCORDING TO THE SANATANA DHARMA, ARE CORRECT BECAUSE OF THE YOGAJA PRAMANA OF THE RISHIS. THE GODS CANNOT EITHER BE DISCOVERED BY THE SENSES OR BY REASON.

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IN 1883 DAYANANDA WAS INVITED BY THE MAHARAJA OF JODHPUR TO STAY AT HIS PALACE. THE MAHARAJA WAS EAGER TO BECOME HIS DISCIPLE AND LEARN HIS TEACHINGS. ONE DAY DAYANANDA WENT TO THE MAHARAJA'S REST ROOM AND SAW HIM WITH A DANCE GIRL NAMED NANHI JAN. DAYANANDA BOLDLY ASKED THE MAHARAJA TO FORSAKE THE GIRL AND ALL UNETHICAL ACTS AND FOLLOW DHARMA LIKE A TRUE ARYAN. DAYANANDA'S SUGGESTION OFFENDED THE DANCE GIRL AND SHE DECIDED TO TAKE REVENGE SHE BRIBED DAYANANDA'S COOK TO POISON HIM. DAYANANDA WAS POISONED ON 29 SEPTEMBER 1883, WHEN HE WAS THE ROYAL GUEST OF JASWANT SINGH II BY DAYANANDA'S OWN COOK, WHO WAS BRIBED BY THE COURT DANCER AT BEDTIME, THE COOK BROUGHT HIM A GLASS OF MILK CONTAINING POISON AND POWDERED GLASS. DAYANANDA DRANK THE MILK AND WENT TO SLEEP ONLY TO WAKE UP LATER WITH A BURNING SENSATION. HE IMMEDIATELY REALIZED THAT HE HAD BEEN POISONED AND ATTEMPTED TO PURGE HIS DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF THE POISONOUS SUBSTANCE, BUT IT WAS TOO LATE. THE POISON HAD ALREADY ENTERED HIS BLOODSTREAM. DAYANANDA WAS BEDRIDDEN AND SUFFERED EXCRUCIATING PAIN. MAHARAJA WAS QUICK TO ARRANGE SERVICES OF DOCTORS. MANY DOCTORS CAME TO TREAT HIM BUT ALL WAS IN VAIN. HIS BODY WAS COVERED ALL OVER WITH LARGE BLEEDING SORES. ON SEEING DAYANANDA'S SUFFERING THE COOK WAS OVERCOME WITH UNBEARABLE GUILT AND REMORSE. HE CONFESSED HIS CRIME TO DAYANANDA. ON HIS DEATHBED, DAYANANDA FORGAVE HIM AND GAVE HIM A BAG OF MONEY AND TOLD HIM TO FLEE THE KINGDOM LEST HE BE FOUND OUT AND EXECUTED BY THE MAHARAJA'S MEN. LATER MAHARAJA ARRANGED FOR SWAMIJI TO BE SENT TO MOUNT ABU UPON ADVICE OF RESIDENCY, HOWEVER, AFTER STAYING SOME TIME IN ABU, SWAMJI WAS SENT TO AJMER FOR BETTER MEDICAL CARE ON 26 OCTOBER 1883. THERE WAS NO IMPROVEMENT IN HIS HEALTH AND HE DIED ON THE MORNING OF 30 OCTOBER 1883 AT 6:00 AM, CHANTING MANTRAS. THE DAY COINCIDED WITH HINDU FESTIVAL OF DIWALI

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RAMAKRISHNA (ABOUT THIS SOUND RAMKṚIṢṆO PÔROMÔHONGŚO (HELP·INFO)) (18 FEBRUARY 1836 – 16 AUGUST 1886), BORN GADADHAR CHATTOPADHYAY WAS A FAMOUS MYSTIC OF 19TH-CENTURY INDIA. HIS RELIGIOUS SCHOOL OF THOUGHT LED TO THE FORMATION OF THE RAMAKRISHNA MISSION BY HIS CHIEF DISCIPLE SWAMI VIVEKANANDA HE IS ALSO REFERRED TO AS "PARAMAHAMSA" BY HIS DEVOTEES, AS SUCH HE IS POPULARLY KNOWN AS RAMAKRISHNA PARAMAHAMSA. RAMAKRISHNA WAS BORN IN A POOR BRAHMIN VAISHNAVA FAMILY IN RURAL BENGAL. HE BECAME A PRIEST OF THE DAKSHINESWAR KALI TEMPLE, DEDICATED TO THE GODDESS KALI, WHICH HAD THE INFLUENCE OF THE MAIN STRANDS OF BENGALI BHAKTI TRADITION. THE MOST WIDELY KNOWN AMONGST HIS FIRST SPIRITUAL TEACHERS WAS AN ASCETIC WOMAN, CALLED BHAIRAVI BRAHMANI, WHO WAS SKILLED IN TANTRA AND VAISHNAVA BHAKTI. LATER AN ADVAITA VEDANTIN ASCETIC TAUGHT HIM NON-DUAL MEDITATION, AND ACCORDING TO RAMAKRISHNA, HE EXPERIENCED NIRVIKALPA SAMADHI UNDER HIS GUIDANCE. RAMAKRISHNA ALSO PRACTISED OTHER RELIGIONS, NOTABLY ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY, AND SAID THAT ALL RELIGIONS LEAD TO THE SAME GOD

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TEACKINGS AND CARRIER RAMAKRISHNA'S TEACHINGS WERE IMPARTED IN RUSTIC BENGALI, USING STORIES AND PARABLES. THESE TEACHINGS MADE A POWERFUL IMPACT ON CALCUTTA'S INTELLECTUALS, DESPITE THE FACT THAT HIS PREACHINGS WERE FAR REMOVED FROM ISSUES OF MODERNISM OR NATIONAL INDEPENDENCE, HIS SPIRITUAL MOVEMENT INDIRECTLY AIDED NATIONALISM, AS IT REJECTED CASTE DISTINCTIONS AND RELIGIOUS PREJUDICES. IN THE CALCUTTA SCENE OF THE MID TO LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY, RAMAKRISHNA WAS OPINIONATED ON THE SUBJECT OF CHAKRI. CHAKRI CAN BE DESCRIBED AS A TYPE OF LOW-PAYING SERVITUDE DONE BY EDUCATED MEN—TYPICALLY GOVERNMENT OR COMMERCE-RELATED CLERICAL POSITIONS. ON sA BASIC LEVEL, RAMAKRISHNA SAW THIS SYSTEM AS A CORRUPT FORM OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL ORGANISATION THAT FORCED EDUCATED MEN TO BE SERVANTS NOT ONLY TO THEIR BOSSES AT THE OFFICE BUT ALSO TO THEIR WIVES AT HOME. WHAT RAMAKRISHNA SAW AS THE PRIMARY DETRIMENT OF CHAKRI, HOWEVER, WAS THAT IT FORCED WORKERS INTO A RIGID, IMPERSONAL CLOCK-BASED TIME STRUCTURE. HE SAW THE IMPOSITION OF STRICT ADHERENCE TO EACH SECOND ON THE WATCH AS A ROADBLOCK TO SPIRITUALITY. DESPITE THIS, HOWEVER, RAMAKRISHNA DEMONSTRATED THAT BHAKTI COULD BE PRACTISED AS AN INNER RETREAT TO EXPERIENCE SOLACE IN THE FACE OF WESTERN-STYLE DISCIPLINE AND OFTEN DISCRIMINATION IN THE WORKPLACE. RAMAKRISHNA EMPHASISED GOD-REALISATION AS THE SUPREME GOAL OF ALL LIVING BEINGS. RAMAKRISHNA TAUGHT THAT KAMINI-KANCHANA IS AN OBSTACLE TO GOD-REALIZATION. KAMINI-KANCHAN LITERALLY TRANSLATES TO "WOMAN AND GOLD." PARTHA CHATTERJEE WROTE THAT FIGURE OF A WOMAN STANDS FOR CONCEPTS OR ENTITIES THAT HAVE "LITTLE TO DO WITH WOMEN IN ACTUALITY" AND "THE FIGURE OF WOMAN-AND-GOLD SIGNIFIED THE ENEMY WITHIN: THAT PART OF ONE'S OWN SELF WHICH WAS SUSCEPTIBLE TO THE TEMPTATIONS OF EVER-UNRELIABLE WORLDLY SUCCESS." CARL T. JACKSON INTERPRETS KAMINI-KANCHANA TO REFER TO THE IDEA OF SEX AND THE IDEA OF MONEY AS DELUSIONS WHICH PREVENT PEOPLE FROM REALISING GOD. JEFFREY KRIPAL TRANSLATES THE PHRASE AS "LOVER-AND-GOLD" AND ASSOCIATES IT WITH RAMAKRISHNA'S ALLEGED DISGUST FOR WOMEN AS LOVERS. KRIPAL'S TRANSLATION IS DISPUTED BY SWAMI TYAGANANDA, WHO ARGUES THIS TO BE A "LINGUISTIC MISCONSTRUCTION." RAMAKRISHNA ALSO CAUTIONED HIS WOMEN DISCIPLES AGAINST PURUSA-KANCHANA ("MAN AND GOLD") AND TYAGANANDA WRITES THAT RAMAKRISHNA USED KAMINI-KANCHANA AS "CAUTIONARY WORDS" INSTRUCTING HIS DISCIPLES TO CONQUER THE "LUST INSIDE THE MIND."

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RAMAKRISHNA LOOKED UPON THE WORLD AS MAYA AND HE EXPLAINED THAT  AVIDYA MAYA  REPRESENTS DARK FORCES OF CREATION (E.G. SENSUAL DESIRE,SELFISH ACTIONS, EVIL PASSIONS, GREED, LUST AND CRUELTY), WHICH KEEP PEOPLE ON LOWER PLANES OF CONSCIOUSNESS. THESE FORCES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR HUMAN ENTRAPMENT IN THE CYCLE OF BIRTH AND DEATH, AND THEY MUST BE FOUGHT AND VANQUISHED.  VIDYA MAYA , ON THE OTHER HAND, REPRESENTS HIGHER FORCES OF CREATION (E.G. SPIRITUAL VIRTUES, SELFLESS ACTION, ENLIGHTENING QUALITIES, KINDNESS, PURITY, LOVE, AND DEVOTION), WHICH ELEVATE HUMAN BEINGS TO THE HIGHER PLANES OF CONSCIOUSNESS.RAMAKRISHNA PRACTISED SEVERAL RELIGIONS, INCLUDING ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY, AND TAUGHT THAT IN SPITE OF THE DIFFERENCES, ALL RELIGIONS ARE VALID AND TRUE AND THEY LEAD TO THE SAME ULTIMATE GOAL—GOD.RAMAKRISHNA'S TAUGHT THAT  JATRA JIV TATRA SHIV  (WHEREVER THERE IS A LIVING BEING, THERE IS SHIVA). HIS TEACHING, "JIVE DAYA NOY, SHIV GYANE JIV SEBA" (NOT KINDNESS TO LIVING BEINGS, BUT SERVING THE LIVING BEING AS SHIVA HIMSELF) IS CONSIDERED AS THE INSPIRATION FOR THE PHILANTHROPIC WORK CARRIED OUT BY HIS CHIEF DISCIPLE VIVEKANANDA,RAMAKRISHNA USED RUSTIC COLLOQUIAL BENGALI IN HIS CONVERSATIONS. ACCORDING TO CONTEMPORARY REPORTS, RAMAKRISHNA'S LINGUISTIC STYLE WAS UNIQUE, EVEN TO THOSE WHO SPOKE BENGALI. IT CONTAINED OBSCURE LOCAL WORDS AND IDIOMS FROM VILLAGE BENGALI, INTERSPERSED WITH PHILOSOPHICAL SANSKRIT TERMS AND REFERENCES TO THE VEDAS, PURANAS, TANTRAS. FOR THAT REASON, ACCORDING TO PHILOSOPHER LEX HIXON, HIS SPEECHES CANNOT BE LITERALLY TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH OR ANY OTHER LANGUAGE.SCHOLAR AMIYA P. SEN ARGUED THAT CERTAIN TERMS THAT RAMAKRISHNA MAY HAVE USED ONLY IN A METAPHYSICAL SENSE ARE BEING IMPROPERLY INVESTED WITH NEW, CONTEMPORANEOUS MEANINGS,RAMAKRISHNA WAS SKILLED WITH WORDS AND HAD AN EXTRAORDINARY STYLE OF PREACHING AND INSTRUCTING, WHICH MAY HAVE HELPED CONVEY HIS IDEAS TO EVEN THE MOST SCEPTICAL TEMPLE VISITORS. HIS SPEECHES REPORTEDLY REVEALED A SENSE OF JOY AND FUN, BUT HE WAS NOT AT A LOSS WHEN DEBATING WITH INTELLECTUAL PHILOSOPHERS. PHILOSOPHER ARINDAM CHAKRABARTI CONTRASTED RAMAKRISHNA'S TALKATIVENESS WITH BUDDHA'S LEGENDARY RETICENCE, AND COMPARED HIS TEACHING STYLE TO THAT OF SOCRATES.

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LAST DAYS IN THE BEGINNING OF 1885 RAMAKRISHNA SUFFERED FROM CLERGYMAN'S THROAT, WHICH GRADUALLY DEVELOPED INTO THROAT CANCER. HE WAS MOVED TO SHYAMPUKUR NEAR CALCUTTA, WHERE SOME OF THE BEST PHYSICIANS OF THE TIME, INCLUDING DR. MAHENDRALAL SARKAR, WERE ENGAGED. WHEN HIS CONDITION AGGRAVATED HE WAS RELOCATED TO A LARGE GARDEN HOUSE AT COSSIPORE ON 11 DECEMBER 1885 DURING HIS LAST DAYS, HE WAS LOOKED AFTER BY HIS MONASTIC DISCIPLES AND SARADA DEVI. RAMAKRISHNA WAS ADVISED BY THE DOCTORS TO KEEP THE STRICTEST SILENCE, BUT IGNORING THEIR ADVICE, HE INCESSANTLY CONVERSED WITH VISITORS. ACCORDING TO TRADITIONAL ACCOUNTS, BEFORE HIS DEATH, RAMAKRISHNA TRANSFERRED HIS SPIRITUAL POWERS TO VIVEKANANDA AND REASSURED VIVEKANANDA OF HIS AVATARIC STATUS.RAMAKRISHNA ASKED VIVEKANANDA TO LOOK AFTER THE WELFARE OF THE DISCIPLES, SAYING, "KEEP MY BOYS TOGETHER" AND ASKED HIM TO "TEACH THEM". RAMAKRISHNA ALSO ASKED OTHER MONASTIC DISCIPLES TO LOOK UPON VIVEKANANDA AS THEIR LEADER. RAMAKRISHNA'S CONDITION GRADUALLY WORSENED AND HE PASSED AWAY IN THE EARLY MORNING HOURS OF 16 AUGUST 1886 AT THE COSSIPORE GARDEN HOUSE. ACCORDING TO HIS DISCIPLES, THIS WAS  MAHASAMADHI .AFTER THE DEATH OF THEIR MASTER, THE MONASTIC DISCIPLES LED BY VIVEKANANDA FORMED A FELLOWSHIP AT A HALF-RUINED HOUSE AT BARANAGAR NEAR THE RIVER GANGES, WITH THE FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE OF THE HOUSEHOLDER DISCIPLES. THIS BECAME THE FIRST MATH OR MONASTERY OF THE DISCIPLES WHO CONSTITUTED THE FIRST RAMAKRISHNA ORDER.HE DIED ON 16 AUGUST 1886

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VINOBA BHAVE ABOUT THIS SOUND PRONUNCIATION (HELP·INFO) (MARATHI: विनोबा भावे ), VINAYAK NARAHARI BHAVE (SEPTEMBER 11, 1895 - NOVEMBER 15, 1982) OFTEN CALLED ACHARYA (SANSKRIT FOR TEACHER), WAS AN INDIAN ADVOCATE OF NONVIOLENCE AND HUMAN RIGHTS. HE IS BEST KNOWN FOR THE BHOODAN MOVEMENT. HE IS CONSIDERED AS A NATIONAL TEACHER OF INDIA AND THE SPIRITUAL SUCCESSOR OF MOHANDAS GANDHI..

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CAREER HE WAS ASSOCIATED WITH MAHATMA GANDHI IN THE INDIAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT. HE STAYED FOR SOME TIME AT GANDHI'S SABARMATI ASHRAM IN A COTTAGE THAT WAS NAMED AFTER HIM, 'VINOBA KUTIR'. IN 1932 HE WAS SENT TO JAIL BY THE BRITISH COLONIAL GOVERNMENT BECAUSE OF HIS ACTIVISM AGAINST BRITISH RULE. THERE HE GAVE A SERIES OF TALKS ON THE GITA, IN HIS NATIVE LANGUAGE MARATHI, TO HIS FELLOW PRISONERS. THESE HIGHLY INSPIRING TALKS WERE LATER PUBLISHED AS THE BOOK "TALKS ON THE GITA", AND IT HAS BEEN TRANSLATED INTO MANY LANGUAGES BOTH IN INDIA AND ELSEWHERE. VINOBA FELT THAT THE SOURCE OF THESE TALKS WAS SOMETHING FROM ABOVE AND HE BELIEVED THAT ITS INFLUENCE WILL ENDURE EVEN IF HIS OTHER WORKS WERE FORGOTTEN. IN 1940 HE WAS CHOSEN BY GANDHI TO BE THE FIRST INDIVIDUAL SATYAGRAHI (AN INDIVIDUAL STANDING UP FOR TRUTH INSTEAD OF A COLLECTIVE ACTION) AGAINST THE BRITISH RULE. IT IS SAID THAT GANDHI ENVIED AND RESPECTED BHAVE'S CELIBACY, A VOW HE MADE IN HIS ADOLESCENCE, IN FITTING WITH HIS BELIEF IN THE BRAHMACHARYA PRINCIPLE. BHAVE ALSO PARTICIPATED IN THE QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT.

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RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL WORK VINOBA'S RELIGIOUS OUTLOOK WAS VERY BROAD AND IT SYNTHESIZED THE TRUTHS OF MANY RELIGIONS. THIS CAN BE SEEN IN ONE OF HIS HYMNS "OM TAT SAT" WHICH CONTAINS SYMBOLS OF MANY RELIGIONS. VINOBA OBSERVED THE LIFE OF THE AVERAGE INDIAN LIVING IN A VILLAGE AND TRIED TO FIND SOLUTIONS FOR THE PROBLEMS HE FACED WITH A FIRM SPIRITUAL FOUNDATION. THIS FORMED THE CORE OF HIS  SARVODAYA  (UPLIFTING OF ALL) MOVEMENT. ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF THIS IS THE BHOODAN (LAND GIFT) MOVEMENT STARTED AT POCHAMPALLY ON 18 APRIL 1951, AFTER INTERACTING WITH 80 HARIJAN FAMILIES. HE WALKED ALL ACROSS INDIA ASKING PEOPLE WITH LAND TO CONSIDER HIM AS ONE OF THEIR SONS AND SO GIVE HIM ONE SIXTH OF THEIR LAND WHICH HE THEN DISTRIBUTED TO LANDLESS POOR. NON-VIOLENCE AND COMPASSION BEING A HALLMARK OF HIS PHILOSOPHY, HE ALSO CAMPAIGNED AGAINST THE SLAUGHTERING OF COWS. VINOBA SAID, "I HAVE WALKED ALL OVER INDIA FOR 13 YEARS. IN THE BACKDROP OF ENDURING PERPETUITY OF MY LIFE’S WORK, I HAVE ESTABLISHED 6 ASHRAMS. ALTHOUGH I HAVE ACCOMPLISHED A LOT, ONE OF THE ACHIEVEMENTS “BABA” WOULD LIKE TO BE REMEMBERED FOR, IS THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THESE ASHRAMS. HENCE, SIX GEOGRAPHICAL SITES WERE CHOSEN. THREE IN THE THREE CORNERS OF INDIA AND THREE IN THE MIDDLE, ON THE LINES OF ADI SHANKARA. SAMANVAY ASHRAM IN BODHGAYA, BIHAR BRAHMA VIDYA MANDIR IN PAUNAR, MAHARASHTRA PRASTHAN ASHRAM IN PATHANKOT, PUNJAB VISARJAN ASHRAM IN INDORE, MADHYA PRADESH MAITRI ASHRAM IN NORTH LAKHIMPUR, CLOSE TO SINO-INDIA BORDER, ASSAM

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LITERARY CAREER VINOBA BHAVE WAS A SCHOLAR, THINKER, AND WRITER WHO PRODUCED NUMEROUS BOOKS. HE WAS A TRANSLATOR WHO MADE SANSKRIT TEXTS ACCESSIBLE TO THE COMMON MAN. HE WAS ALSO AN ORATOR AND LINGUIST WHO HAD AN EXCELLENT COMMAND OF SEVERAL LANGUAGES (MARATHI, GUJARATI, HINDI, URDU, ENGLISH, SANSKRIT). VINOBA BHAVE WAS AN INNOVATIVE SOCIAL REFORMER. SHRI VINOBA BHAVE CALLED NAGARI SCRIPT THE "QUEEN OF WORLD SCRIPTS". HE WROTE BRIEF INTRODUCTIONS TO, AND CRITICISMS OF, SEVERAL RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS LIKE THE BHAGAVAD GITA, WORKS OF ADI SHANKARACHARYA, THE BIBLE ANDQURAN. HIS CRITICISM OF DNYANESHWAR'S POETRY AND WORKS BY OTHER MARATHI SAINTS IS QUITE BRILLIANT AND A TESTIMONY TO THE BREADTH OF HIS INTELLECT. VINOBA BHAVE HAD TRANSLATED THE BHAGAVAD GITA INTO MARATHI. HE WAS DEEPLY INFLUENCED BY THE GITA AND ATTEMPTED TO IMBIBE ITS TEACHINGS INTO HIS LIFE, OFTEN STATING THAT "THE GITA IS MY LIFE'S BREATH". [ SOME OF HIS WORKS ARE: THE ESSENCE OF QURAN THE ESSENCE OF CHRISTIAN TEACHINGS THOUGHTS ON EDUCATION SWARAJYA SASTRA A UNIVERSITY HAS BEEN NAMED AFTER HIM, VINOBA BHAVE UNIVERSITY, WHICH IS LOCATED IN HAZARIBAGH DISTRICT IN THE STATE OF JHARKHAND.

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VINOBHA BHAVE AND LAND DONATION MOVEMENT IN 1951 VINOBA BHAVE STARTED HIS LAND DONATION MOVEMENT, THE BHOODAN MOVEMENT. HE TOOK DONATED LAND FROM LAND OWNER INDIANS AND GAVE IT AWAY TO THE POOR AND LANDLESS, FOR THEM TO CULTIVATE. THEN AFTER 1954, HE STARTED TO ASK FOR DONATIONS OF WHOLE VILLAGES IN A PROGRAMME HE CALLED GRAMDAN. HE GOT MORE THAN 1000 VILLAGES BY WAY OF DONATION. OUT OF THESE, HE OBTAINED 175 DONATED VILLAGES IN TAMIL NADU ALONE.

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VINOBA SPENT THE LATER PART OF HIS LIFE AT HIS BRAHMA VIDYA MANDIR ASHRAM IN PAUNAR, MAHARASHTRA. HE DIED ON 15 NOVEMBER 1982 AFTER REFUSING FOOD AND MEDICINE FOR A FEW DAYS. THE THEN PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA, INDIRA GANDHI CUT SHORT HER VISIT TO MOSCOW,TO ATTEND THE FUNERAL OF SOVIET LEADER LEONID BREZHNEV TO BE AT THE FUNERAL OF VINOBA BHAVE.

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