economics

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ECONOMICS : 

ECONOMICS BY GYAN AGNIHOTRI

What is Economics? (Continued) : 

What is Economics? (Continued) Economics is form of applied logic (reasoning). Economists study the reasoning that drives economic decisions and outcomes. One might think of economics as the study of unintended consequences. Understanding causes and effects is critical to: understanding the ultimate consequences of economic events and effective and responsible policy making.

Definition of Economics : 

Definition of Economics Economics is the study of how scarce resources are allocated among unlimited wants. To understand this definition, we must examine the concepts of scarcity, economic choice, and rationalself-interest.

Human Nature and Reality : 

Human Nature and Reality People have unlimited wants. People have limited resources to acquire the things they want. As a result, they must make choices. Choices involve pursuing some things while forgoing others.

Scarcity, Goods and Bads : 

Scarcity, Goods and Bads An item that costs something is called scarce. Anything with a price on it is called an economic good—these include goods and services. A free good is a good for which there is no scarcity. An economic bad is anything you want to get rid of (pollution, disease, garbage)

Clarifying Concepts : 

Clarifying Concepts Scarcity means that not enough is available for free. A shortage occurs when not enough is available at the current price. A shortage is a problem of price. Poverty occurs when the goods are scarce, and those who need them do not have the income to obtain them. Poverty is a problem of income.

Goods to Produce Goods : 

Goods to Produce Goods Resources are the elements needed to produce goods. Resources are also called factors of production inputs They are: Land (includes natural resources) Labor (physical and intellectual services of people) Capital (plant, machinery, equipment used in production)

Resources in Production : 

Resources in Production Producers of Goods Resource Suppliers land labor capital rent wages interest

Scarcity and Choice : 

Scarcity and Choice Scarcity necessitates making choices. Economics is the study of how people choose to use their resources in attempts to satisfy their unlimited wants.

Rational Self-Interest : 

Rational Self-Interest Economists believe that people choose options that give them the greatest satisfaction. This means that people: use all available time and information, weigh the costs and benefits of all available alternatives, and choose the alternative that they believe will bring them the most benefit at the lowest cost. This is the alternative that they believe will bring them the most satisfaction. This does not mean that people are innately selfish. Self-interest is not greed.

Limits to Rationality : 

Limits to Rationality Depends upon Information available (and/or its cost) Ability to process the information Your perception of what constitutes your “best interests” This leads to the theory of bounded rationality. In practice, this means that people compare costs and benefits to make a decision.

Implications : 

Implications People weigh the costs and benefits of various alternatives, choosing the alternative that makes them best off. This behavior is called “economic decision making”. Costs and benefits are sometimes referred to as negative and positive incentives. Hence incentives matter.

Positive vs. Normative Economics : 

Positive vs. Normative Economics Positive Economics Focuses on “what is”. Analyzes actual, measurable outcomes. Does not impose value judgments, person feelings or convictions. Positive economics is economics as a science. Normative Economics Focuses on what someone thinks “ought to be” or “should be”. Makes ethical judgments—value judgments.

Common Analytical Mistakes (Logical Fallacies) : 

Common Analytical Mistakes (Logical Fallacies) Fallacy of Composition The mistaken assumption that what is true of a part is also true of the whole. Association is not Causation The mistaken assumption that because two events occur together, one must cause the other. Also given as “correlation is not causation”. Violation of Ceteris Paribus Ceteris Paribus: Latin for “all else equal”. This occurs when one attempts to analyze the effect of one thing while holding everything else constant, when in fact other things have changed.

Micro vs. Macro : 

Micro vs. Macro Microeconomics Studies the economy at the level of individual consumers, workers, firms, goods, and markets Macroeconomics Studies the economy at the aggregate level, at the level of the economy as a whole. Examines total consumer behavior, total employment, total production, total sales, etc.

THANKS : 

THANKS

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