PHONETICS : 35 1 PHONETICS by Gyan Agnihotri ARTICULATORY PHONETICS : 35 2 ARTICULATORY PHONETICS PLACE OF ARTICULATION : 35 3 PLACE OF ARTICULATION BILABIALS
VELARS MANNER OF ARTICULATION : 35 4 MANNER OF ARTICULATION STOPS
VOICI MANNER OF ARTICULATION EXERCISE : 35 5 MANNER OF ARTICULATION EXERCISE TALKING SOFTLY: Everyone in the class should talk softly as they say something.
WHISPERING: Everyone in the class should whisper as they say something.
NOTE: In talking softly all of the vowels and most of the consonants are voiced, but in whispering none of the vowels or consonants are voiced. When you talk softly in church rather than whispering, your voice will carry throughout the church. Slide 6: 35 6 NASALIZATION: The velic in the back of the throat opens and closes the nasal cavity to allow nasalization or not.
Everyone in the class should keep the velic open as they say something so that all of the sounds will be nasalized.
NOTE: If the velic is defective, or if the palate is defective, then many sounds become nasalized that should not be nasalized. This is why people with a detective palate must have an artificial palate installed.
( Slide 7: 35 7 DENALIZATION: Everyone in the class should keep the velic closed as they say something so that none of the sounds will be nasalized.
NOTE: People with adenoid problems, or with colds in their noses sound denasalized.
Now everyone in the class should hold their nose as they say something. Is the resulting sound a nasal sound, or a denasalized sound? Explain.
QUESTION: Are the nasal sounds in English stops or continuants?
ANSWER: From the point of view of the mouth, they are stops; however, from the point of view of the nose, they are continuants. Slide 8: 35 8 CHANGE OF PITCH: The “voice box” is also called the “larynx.”
As air passes through the larynx it can be cut off (voiceless), or it can be allowed through (voiceless).
If the air is allowed through, but the vocal folds are held close together the result is a high pitch; if they are held close together the result is a low pitch.
Pitch can be heard only in voiced continuants.
All of our vowels, and most of our consonants are voiced continuants. CONTRAST THE SOUNDS & SPELLINGS OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS : 35 9 CONTRAST THE SOUNDS & SPELLINGS OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS REGIONAL DIALECTSCONTRAST THE FOLLOWING : 35 10 REGIONAL DIALECTSCONTRAST THE FOLLOWING cot-caught
() REGIONAL DIALECTSPRONOUNCE THE FOLLOWING : 35 11 REGIONAL DIALECTSPRONOUNCE THE FOLLOWING IDENTIFY THE SOUNDIDENTIFY THE FEATURES : 35 12 IDENTIFY THE SOUNDIDENTIFY THE FEATURES Your teacher will give you three features, and you will give the unique sound that these three features identify.
Your teacher will give you a sound, and you will give the three or more features that will uniquely identify the sound.
) POINTS OF ARTICULATION : 35 13 POINTS OF ARTICULATION PHONETIC ALPHABET FOR ENGLISH : 35 14 PHONETIC ALPHABET FOR ENGLISH PHONETIC SYMBOL : 35 15 PHONETIC SYMBOL AMERICAN VOWELS(Fromkin Rodman Hyams  248) : 35 16 AMERICAN VOWELS(Fromkin Rodman Hyams  248) SILENT CONSONANTS : 35 17 SILENT CONSONANTS For each of the following words with a silent consonant, think of a related word in which the consonant is pronounced. This is not possible for all words.
autumn, bough, corps, debt, ghost, gnaw, hole, island, knot, lamb, mnemonic, pneumonia, psychology, pterodacty, resign, sword, write
( SPELLING OF LONG VOWELS : 35 18 SPELLING OF LONG VOWELS Short vowel sounds are easy to spell in English: “bit,” “bet,” “bat,” “but,” “bot” (a horse fly)
But long vowels in English are chaotic in their spelling. We might add a “silent” e, or write more than one vowel letter, etc.
Furthermore, our sound system has changed drastically, but our writing system has not, so on first blush, the English spelling system appears to be chaotic. spelling inconsistencies : 35 19 spelling inconsistencies I take it you already know
of tough and bough and cough and dough?
Some may stumble, but not you,
On hiccough, thorough, slough and through.
So now you are ready, perhaps,
To learn of less familiar traps? Slide 20: 35 20 Beware of heard, a dreadful word
That looks like beard and sounds like bird.
And dead, it’s said like bed, not bead;
For goodness’ sake, don’t call it deed!
Watch out for meat and great and threat.
(They rhyme with suite and straight and debt.)
A moth is not a moth in mother,
Nor both in bother, broth in brother. “THE WALRUS AND THE CARPENTER”by Lewis Carroll : 35 21 “THE WALRUS AND THE CARPENTER”by Lewis Carroll Write the following in phonetic script:
The time has come the walrus said to talk of many things,
Of shoes and ships and seeling wax, of cabbages and kings,
and why the sea is boiling hot, and whether pigs have wings.
) SIMILARITY THEORYIn this series of jokes, the puns of the first joke represents total similarity (or identity), and the puns in each joke from then on becomes less and less similar. In the last joke, the punning words are so dissimilar that it is a stretch to figure them out at all. : 35 22 SIMILARITY THEORYIn this series of jokes, the puns of the first joke represents total similarity (or identity), and the puns in each joke from then on becomes less and less similar. In the last joke, the punning words are so dissimilar that it is a stretch to figure them out at all. FORM-MEANING CORRESPONDENCES : 35 23 FORM-MEANING CORRESPONDENCES Antonyms (woman-man)
Homographs (bank-bank [NOTE: These are also Homophones)
Homonoids (sex and violins = saxon violence)
Metanalysis (un naperon => an apron)
Synonyms (dog-hound) POLYSEMY : 35 24 POLYSEMY POLYSEMY: When a single word has two different senses.
Q: What did one tonsil say to the other?
A: You'd better get dressed. The doctor's taking us out tonight. HOMOGRAPHY : 35 25 HOMOGRAPHY HOMOGRAPHY: When two different words are pronounced and spelled the same.
Q: Why can't the leopard escape from the zoo?
A: Because he is always spotted. !HOMOPHONY : 35 26 !HOMOPHONY HOMOPHONY: When two different words are pronounced the same but are spelled differently:
Q: What's black and white and red/read all over?
A: A newspaper. !!HOMONOIDISM : 35 27 !!HOMONOIDISM HOMONOIDISM: When words are similar but not the same in sound and spelling:
1st: Knock Knock
2nd: Who's there?
1st: Eskimos, Christians, and Italians
2nd: Eskimos, Christians, and Italians who?
1st: Eskimos, Christians, and Italians no lies. !!!METANALYSIS : 35 28 !!!METANALYSIS METANALYSIS: An inaccurate understanding of where one word or phrase ends and the next one begins
Q: Why does a Frenchman have only one egg for breakfast?
A: Because one egg is an oeuf.