Gaucher’s disease

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Gaucher’s disease : 

Gaucher’s disease

Gaucher’s disease: 

Gaucher’s disease lysosomal storage disease, caused by failure of lysosomes degrade substances Accumulation of nondegraded compound Increase size and amount lysosomes into reticuloendothelial cells (particularly in the liver, spleen,bone marrow and lung), rendering GD a multi- organchronic disorder .

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Ashkenazi Jewish population (75%), whereas it accounts for only 25% of alleles found in the Caucasian Gaucher population .

Decreasing activity of glucocerebrosidase ( glucocerebrosides = glucose + ceramide): 

Decreasing activity of glucocerebrosidase ( glucocerebrosides = glucose + ceramide ) Residual activity of GlcCerase in patients with GD may vary from 5% to 25% of normal

Gaucher cells: 

Gaucher cells Large macrophages (approximately 20–100μm in diameter)loaded with glucosylceramide

Three major forms of GD: 

Three major forms of GD 1 type 2 type 3 type

Nonneuronopathic form (type 1) : 

Nonneuronopathic form ( type 1) characterized by anemia , thrombocytopenia, enlargement of the spleen, skeletal abnormalities ( osteopoenia , lytic lesions, pathological fractures, chronic bone pain, bone crisis, bone infarcts, osteonecrosis and skeletal deformities) and, in a small number of patients, by lung involvement with interstitial lung disease and pulmonary hypertension.19 Type 1 GD patients are usually young adults.

Acute neuronopathic form (Type 2 ): 

Acute neuronopathic form (Type 2 ) This disease variant is characterized by neurological symptoms ( oculomotor abnormalities and brainstem involvement), severe prognosis and survival limited to the first two to three years of life.

Type 3 GD : 

Type 3 GD is also characterized by neurological involvement that usually appears later in life , compared with type 2 . Dementia and spastic syndrome to 10 years

Pathology: 

Pathology Recent studies have shown that macrophageal activation, resulting in elevated serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and the soluble IL-2 receptor, is one of the drivers of the GD pathogenesis. The macrophageal activation could potentially explain some clinical features of adult type-1 GD

The pathological mechanism of CNS damage : 

The pathological mechanism of CNS damage is not fully understood. Infiltration of Gaucher cells into Virchov -Robin spaces has been demonstrated. Reports have described neuronal loss and neuro -degeneration with damaged neurons in the basal ganglia, nuclei of the midbrain, pons, medulla, cerebellum, dentate nucleus and hypothalamus. Recently , an association between GD and Parkinson’s disease has been discovered