El sonido

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1. Definición de sonido : 

1. Definición de sonido From a physical point of view, the sound is a vibration which spreads in half elastic (solid, liquid or gaseous) When we refer to audible sound by the human ear, what we define as a sensation perceived in the body ear, produced by the vibration which spreads in half in the form of elastic waves.

Elastic wave : 

Elastic wave

Actividad 1 : 

Actividad 1 Audición 1 Responde las siguientes cuestiones: ¿Es sonido o ruido? ¿Qué tipos de ruidos o sonidos son?

2. Producción del sonido : 

2. Producción del sonido To bring about a sound is necessary for the existence: An issuer or vibrant body. A means of transmitting these elastic vibrations. A receiver that captures these vibrations.

3. Propagación del sonido : 

3. Propagación del sonido An object vibrates when, disturbs the pressure and density of the environment that surrounds him, conveying the vibrancy to compress and expand, this requires that half is elastic, since a rigid body does not allow vibrations are transmitted. Thus, without half elastic (air, water, solid body), there would be no sound, because sound waves do not propagate in a vacuum. If we vibrate the first mass horizontally, the other moves in turn swings back and forth, one after another, thus shifting the vibration along this chain of masses and docks.

Slide 6: 

In another image we see this as the vibration of the pitch, forcing air particles entering turn in vibration. The particles do not move until the end, but oscillate back and forth, before returning to their place of origin. Each particle transmits the vibration to the next giving rise to a movement chain. Vídeo

Slide 7: 

You can see that there are darker areas, where the air is máscomprimido, because the particles in the middle is now approaching one another at a given moment, and Areas clearer, which is more extensive, because the particles are more separated from each other .

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To understand this imagine a tube filled with air, if it moves the piston (red line) quickly inwards, the particles that are next to the piston will be pushed immediately, while those which are more distant they will later.

3. Velocidad del sonido : 

3. Velocidad del sonido The speed of sound depends on the characteristics of the medium, and the sound spreads at different speeds depending on the means to transmit vibration. In general, speed is higher than in solids and liquids in the liquid is higher than in gases Actividad

4. Recepción del sonido : El oído : 

4. Recepción del sonido : El oído When an object (acting as issuer of sound) vibrates, it also vibrate the air that is around him. This vibration is transmitted to the distance and does vibrate (resonance) a membrane that exists in the inner ear: the eardrum.

Slide 11: 

The vibration causes the eardrum movement of the three huesecillos: hammer, anvil and stirrup. The latter affects the cochlea or snail, and a small body, who is here, is the codification of such information in electrical vibration. This information is transmitted through the brain neurons. The brain decodes that information and turns it into a sensation called sound.

4.1. PARTES DEL OÍDO : 

4.1. PARTES DEL OÍDO The outer ear is responsible for capturing and directing the sound waves to the eardrum through the ear hole. The middle ear vibrations generated in the eardrum are amplified and transmitted through some huesecillos called hammer, anvil and stirrup, to the inner ear. The inner ear in this area is the conversion of complex vibrations into nerve impulses. From here transmitting nerve signals to our brain, which will decrypt and make them a feeling hearing. In the inner ear or cochlea are the snail.

5. Contaminación acústica : 

5. Contaminación acústica It is considered noise sound anyone qualified, by whom he suffers, as something unpleasant, undesirable and irritating, that interferes with their activity or rest. The effects produced by this type of exposure are based on the intensity, frequency and issued the exposure time that we put. Vídeo

PARÁMETROS DEL SONIDO : 

PARÁMETROS DEL SONIDO 6.1. LA ALTURA Each sound is characterized by its specific speed vibration, which impresses so peculiar to the auditory sense. This property is called tone or height Sonido agudo Sonido grave

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The height or tone is the feature that allows us to distinguish a sound severe acute one. The height has been produced by the number of vibrations per second (frequency) and a larger number of vibrations per second is more acute sound, and fewer vibrations more serious is the sound. The succession of sounds of different heights gives us the melody. The height is represented in music through musical notes: Do-Re-Mi-SOL-FA-LA-SI. The position of the notes on the staff depends on the key being used.

La altura viene determinada por: : 

La altura viene determinada por: The size: the larger is a more serious is the sound it produces, the smaller the sound will be more acute. The length: the longer a rope more serious is the sound, the shorter more acute, so there are instruments that have strings of different lengths. Also the longer the tube of a wind instrument, its sound is more serious and the shorter more acute. Tension: the more tense is a rope, the sound is more acute and the less tense, more serious. The pressure: a higher air pressure more acute will be sound and vice versa.

6. 2. La intensidad : 

6. 2. La intensidad It is the quality that enables us to distinguish between sounds strong or weak. we can define as the force with which produces a sound. In addition to the breadth in the perception of intensity, affects the distance as the focus located sound and the listener's hearing this. Sonido fuerte Sonido suave Actividad

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The Dynamics is the element of music which measures changes in intensity, is represented by some signs of momentum that we show the intensity with which we must interpret a work. Terms p, pp, mf, f, ff

6.3. La duración : 

6.3. La duración It is the characteristic sound that allows us to differentiate sounds sounds of long shorts. The we can define as the dwell time of a sound. The succession of sounds of various lengths gives us the pace. The duration is represented in music through musical figures

6.4. El timbre : 

6.4. El timbre It is the quality that enables us to distinguish the sounds produced by different instruments. This quality is called physically waveform. The sounds we hear are complex, ie, consisting of several simultaneous waves, but we perceive it as one. The timbre of different instruments consists of a sound fundamental, which is dominant (and its frequency that determines the height of sound), plus a range of sounds that are known as harmonics. Sonido complejo Sonido fundamental

De que depende el timbre : 

De que depende el timbre The bell depends on the material that is made with an instrument, (does not sound like a drum wooden one metal or plastic), how sound is produced (blowing, hitting, etc.), in the form of instrument, etc. . Vídeo sobre los armónicos

Representación en la partitura : 

Representación en la partitura The bell is represented in music at the beginning of the staff indicating the name of the instrument that interprets the work.

Actividades : 

Actividades O fortuna, C. Orff Interpreters executed a sudden change of ................. Dulcissime, C. Orff The singer seems to walk solo voice by a long line of different .................. sound. Danza Húngara. Brahms In this piece the composer plays with the contrast between sounds of different ......... Misteries of the Macabre. G. Ligety. What quality of sound has exploited the composer? What sounds can be heard? ..

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