DIVERSITY IN LIVING ORGANISMS : DIVERSITY IN LIVING ORGANISMS WHAT IS CLASSIFICATION? : WHAT IS CLASSIFICATION? Classification means identifying similarities and dissimilarities between different kinds of organisms with similar characteristics in one group and different kinds of organisms in different groups. WHAT IS THE BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION? : WHAT IS THE BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION? Presence or absence of membrane bound nucleus.
Occurrence of cells singly or in groups.
Mode of food procurement. IMPORTANCE OF CLASSIFICATION : IMPORTANCE OF CLASSIFICATION Classification makes easy to study a wide variety of organisms on this earth.
Classification projects a picture of all life forms at a glance.
It helps us to understand the relationship between different groups of organisms. FIVE KINGDOM PROPOSED BY WHITTAKER : FIVE KINGDOM PROPOSED BY WHITTAKER fungi animalia
protista KINGDOM MONERA : KINGDOM MONERA These are prokaryotic i.e. don’t have well defined nucleus.
Mostly unicellular but may be in the form of colonies.
They are autotrophic.
Ex- bacteria & blue green algae / cyano bacteria. EXAMPLES OF MONERA : EXAMPLES OF MONERA Bacteria KINGDOM PROTISTA : KINGDOM PROTISTA They are eukaryotic, having well organized nucleus.
They are unicellular.
Mode of nutrition- may be auto/heterotrophic.
Ex- algae, paramecium, euglena. EXAMPLES OF PROTISTA : EXAMPLES OF PROTISTA ALGAE EUGLENA PARAMECIUM KINGDOM FUNGI : KINGDOM FUNGI They have definite cell wall made of tough sugar called chitin.
They are without chlorophyll, hence are heterotrophic.
They are usually non motile.
Ex- yeast, mushroom. EXAMPLES OF FUNGI : EXAMPLES OF FUNGI YEAST MUSHROOM KINGDOM PLANTAE : KINGDOM PLANTAE They are multicellular.
Adapted to carry on photosynthesis, hence autotrophic.
They have cell wall made up of true cellulose.
Ex- all green plants. EXAMPLES OF PLANTAE : EXAMPLES OF PLANTAE ALL GREEN PLANTS KINGDOM ANIMALIA : KINGDOM ANIMALIA They are multicellular.
They have eukaryotic cells.
They are heterotrophic.
Show increase sensitivity through nervous system. EXAMPLES OF ANIMALIA : EXAMPLES OF ANIMALIA CLASSIFICATION OF KINGDOM PLANTAE : CLASSIFICATION OF KINGDOM PLANTAE THALLOPHYTA : THALLOPHYTA Body of plant is not well differentiated.
It is in the form of an undivided thalus. These plants are predominantly aquatic.
Vascular system is absent. Slide 18: CHARA ULVA BRYOPHYTA : BRYOPHYTA These are smallest plants with no true roots.
The body of plant is simple, flat and is some times differentiated into stem and leaf like structure. They don’t have specialized tissue for conduction.
They can perform photosynthesis. Slide 20: MOSSES LIVERWORTS PTERIDOPHYTES : PTERIDOPHYTES Their body is differentiated into true stem, leaves, roots like higher plants.
They posses well developed vascular tissues – xylem & phloem. They are seedless vascular plants of humid tropical and temperate areas.
Ex- Marsilea, Ferns and horse-tails. Slide 22: HORSETAIL FERNS GYMNOSPERMAE : GYMNOSPERMAE They all are perennial woody plants forming either bushes or trees.
They are differentiated into roots, stem, leave and branches The stem is erect. Seeds don’t occur inside the fruit.
Ex- Cycas, Pine, etc. Slide 24: CYCUS PINUS ANGIOSPERAE : ANGIOSPERAE They are differentiated into stem, roots leaf, branches and flowers.
Their seeds are enclosed in a fruit. Xylem contains vessels, phloem contains companion cells.
After fertilization, ovary develops into a fruit. Slide 26: PEA MAIZE