POVERTY

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Indicators of a DESCENT life…:

Indicators of a DESCENT life…

What Is POVERTY ?:

What Is POVERTY ? Poverty is about not having enough money to meet basic needs including food, clothing and shelter.  However, poverty is more, much more than just not having enough money. The world bank describes poverty as: “Poverty is hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time.”

THESE R u.s. POOR….!:

THESE R u.s. POOR ….! These r, US poors ,, !

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INDIAN P oor…

Poor People :

Poor People Urban poor Rural poor Domestic servants Casual labours Street vendors Beggars Rikshaw pullers Landless labours Small farmers Poor peasants Seasonal workers

Urban house rural house:

Urban house rural house POOR

Characteristics of poverty..:

Characteristics of poverty.. Hunger & malnutrition Illiteracy Lower living standards of people Lack of basic amenities Unemployment Big families High birth and death rate Low wages Lack of social, civil and political freedom Gender biasness

WHAT IS POVERTY LINE?:

WHAT IS POVERTY LINE? Poverty line is the imaginary line which indicates the level of purchasing power required to satisfy the minimum needs of a person. It represents the capacity to satisfy the minimum level of human needs. The line divides the people into 2 groups : 1.Above poverty line 2.Below poverty line

MEASUREMENT OF POVERTY:

MEASUREMENT OF POVERTY CONSUMPTION METHOD INCOME METHOD Under this the minimum food requirements for survival is estimated. The food value is converted into calories. If a person isn’t able to consume 2400 calories in rural areas and 2100 calories in urban area per day is considered below poverty line. Under this a poverty line is fixed by the government. An individual above monthly consumption of Rs859.6 in urban area and Rs672.8 in rural areas per moth according to 2009-2010 isn’t consider poor. All the families whose total income is less than the poverty line fixed by the government are considered as BPL.

TWO WAYS OF POVERTY:

TWO WAYS OF POVERTY RELATIVE POVERTY ABSOLUTE POVERTY Under Relative poverty the economic conditions of different regions or countries is compared. The capita income and the national income are the two indicators of relative poverty. According to the UNO those countries are treated poor whose per capita income is less than US $725 per annum. Absolute poverty refers to the measure of poverty , keeping in view the per capita intake of calories and minimum level of consumption . Per capita income : National income Population

VULNERABLE GROUP:

VULNERABLE GROUP Poverty and occupation both are co-related. Most of the poor people include agricultural and casual laborers, the SCs , STs and the physically challenged.

Failures of poverty line !:

Failures of poverty line ! It groups all poor together but doesn’t highlight the degree of poorness that varies amongst them, thus, isn’t able to differentiate between the poorest of all poor. It takes into account income and asset factors but, other than these, doesn’t consider other associated factors that are required by a person to live a descent life such as shelter, accessibility to basic education, health care, drinking water and sanitation. The existing mechanism for determining the Poverty Line also doesn’t take into consideration social factors such as illiteracy, ill health, lack of access to resources, discrimination or lack of civil and political freedom.

Categorising poverty:

Categorising poverty Chronically poor : describes people who are poor for significant periods of their lives, who may pass their poverty on to their children and for whom finding exit routes from poverty is difficult . a) Always poor : there are no chances of getting above poverty line. Such as beggars, handicaps etc. b) Usually poor : they may come above poverty line and then again come below poverty line. Such as trash receptacles, casual labours etc.

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Transient poor : Transient poor are those that fall below the food poverty line only after exposure to a shock. Thus, the results represent the percentage point increase in poverty if are exposed to the shock a) Churning poor : they come below poverty line due to exposure to certain unfavourable conditions and may go above poverty line. Such as casual labours b) Occasional poor : these poor are those which enjoy good standards of living and may come below poverty line only after exposure to a shock. It include entrepreneurs etc. Non-poor : these are those people who are always above poverty line.

Trends of poverty:

Trends of poverty The number of poor is estimated as the proportion of people below the poverty line, it is known as ‘Head Count Ratio’ The value for Poverty headcount ratio at $2 a day (PPP) (% of population) in India was 68.72 as of 2010. Over the past 32 years this indicator reached a maximum value of 88.97 in 1978 and a minimum value of 68.72 in 2010. The official data on poverty by the Planning Commission estimated on the basis of consumption expenditure data collected by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO), shows the number of poor and their proportion to the population in India for the year 1973-2000. In 1973-1974, more than 321 million people were below poverty line. In 1999-2000 this number has came down to about 260 million in terms of proportion, In 1973-74 above 55% of total population was below the poverty line. In 1999-2000 it has fallen 26%. In 1973-74 more than 80% of the poor resided in rural areas and in 1999-2000 this has came down to 75%

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This means that more than three-fourth of the poor in India reside in villages Also poverty, which was prevailing predominantly in rural areas has shifted to urban areas ,due to push factor, as it was becoming very hard for the rural poor to earn there living in rural areas , thus migrated to urban areas. During 1973-2000 there has been a decline in the number of poor and there proportion, but the nature of decline in the two parameters isn’t encouraging. The ratio is declining much slower than the absolute number of poor in the country. The state level trends in poverty reveals that five states- Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal and Orissa account for about 70% of India’s poor. During 1973-74, about half the population in most of these large states was living below the poverty line. In 1999-2000, only two states Bihar and Orissa were left near the same level. Gujrat , it reduced its people below the poverty line from 48% to 15% during 1973-2000. west Bengal has been just as successful from nearly two-third i.e. 63% of the population below the poverty line the same was reduced to about 27%.

Causes of poverty:

Causes of poverty 1. ECONOMIC CAUSES Low per capita income : India per capital income is very low as compared to the advanced countries. For example the capital income of India was 460 dollar, in 2000. Where as their capita income of U.S.A in 2000 was 83 times than India. This trend of difference of per capita income between under developed and advanced countries is gradually increasing in present times. India not only the per capita income is low but also the income is unequally distributed. Lack of infrastructure : India has one of the lowest infrastructure ratings in the world , which translates into one of the highest levels of risk on infrastructure . Although largest Indian cities have been equipped in the past few years with infrastructure, many of the rural areas have remained unaffected, fostering inequality. The main facades of poor infrastructure are energy and water supply, educational and health facilities, and transportation.

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Population pressure : The Indian economy is facing the problem population explosion. It is clearly evident from the total population of India which was 102.67 cores in 2001 census. It is the second highest populated country China being the first. India’s population has reached 110 cores. All the under developed countries are characterized by high birth rate which stimulates the growth of population; the fast rate of growth of population necessitates a higher rate of economic growth to maintain the same standard of living. The failure to sustain the living standard makes the poor and under developed countries poor and under developed. Pre-dominance of Agriculture : Occupational distribution of population in India clearly reflects the backwardness of the economy. One of the basis characteristics of an under developed economy is that agriculture contributes a very large portion in the national income and a very high proportion of working population is engaged in agriculture.

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Unemployment : There is larger unemployed and under employment is another important feature of Indian economy. In under developed countries labor is an abundant factor. It is not possible to provide gainful employment the entire population. Lack of job opportunities disguised unemployed is created’ in the agriculture fields. There deficiency of capital formation. Lack in demand : In an economy, demand creates supplies, so when the demand falls in an economy, it leads to less generation of employment, arising poverty. Obsolete Technology: The lever of technology is a common factor in under developed economy. India economy also suffers from this typical feature of technological backwardness. The techniques applied in agriculture industries milling and other economic fields are primitive in nature.

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2. HISTORICAL CAUSES British historical rule : During the period that India was occupied by Britain, the economy was effectively de-industrialized through privatizations, regulations, or tariffs on manufactured goods. This historical period therefore made the Indian economy lag behind other countries in terms of development, which has also made it more difficult for the country to catch up. Inflationary pressure : Inflation rate refers to a general rise in prices measured against a standard level of purchasing power. The inflation rate in India was recorded at 7.81 percent in September of 2012. Continued and sustain rise in price begets expansion of poverty.

Pathetic conditions caused by bengal famine 1943… “heart trembling”:

Pathetic conditions caused by bengal famine 1943… “heart trembling”

3 dimensional measures to eradicate poverty..:

3 dimensional measures to eradicate poverty.. Economic growth Poverty alleviation programme Direct assistance

Poverty alleviation programmes:

Poverty alleviation programmes Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojna : The  was launched as an integrated programme for self-employment of the rural poor with effect from 1 April 1999. The objective of the scheme is to bring the assisted poor families above the poverty line by organising them into Self Help Groups (SHGs) through the process of social mobilisation , their training and capacity building and provision of income generating assets through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy. The scheme emphasizes establishment of activity clusters through selection of key activities based on aptitude and skill of the people, availability of resources and market potentiality. The focus of the programme is on establishing a large number of micro-enterprises in rural areas based on the ability of the poor and potential of each area, both land-based and otherwise, for sustainable income generation Rural wage employment : the Government of India stressed the need for a sharper focus on programmes aimed at providing self-employment and wage-employment to poorer section of the community. Prior to onset of the Eight Plan, various schemes of wage employment generation were taken up from time to time. The include for food for work programme , National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), etc. From April, 1989, the ongoing NREP and RLEGP were merged into a single rural employment programme known as Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) having as its main objective on generation of gainful employment avenues by way of creation of rural infrastructure .

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Urban self employment : This scheme has been launched under Swarn Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY). The objective of this scheme is to address Urban Poverty alleviation through gainful employment to the urban unemployed or underemployed poor by encouraging them to set up self employment ventures. It also supports skill development and training programmes to enable urban poor to have access to employment opportunities. The delivery of inputs under the scheme is through urban local bodies. Urban wage employment : This programme seeks to provide wage employment to beneficiaries living below the poverty line within the jurisdiction of urban local bodies by utilising their labour for construction of socially and economically useful public assets. These assets may be Community Centres , Stormwater Drains, Roads, Night Shelters, Kitchen Sheds in Primary Schools under Mid-day Meal Scheme and other community requirements like Parks, Solid Waste Management facilities, as decided by the community structures themselves. The Urban Wage Employment Programme (UWEP) will be applicable only to towns/cities with population upto 5 Lakhs , as per the 1991 Census.

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Mid –day meal scheme : The Midday Meal Scheme is the popular name for school meal programme in India which started in the 1960s. It involves provision of lunch free of working days. The key objectives of the programme are: protecting children from classroom hunger, increasing school enrollment and attendance, improved socialization among children belonging to all castes, addressing malnutrition, and social empowerment through provision of employment to women

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Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is Government of India's flagship programme for achievement of Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in a time bound manner, as mandated by 86th amendment to theConstitution of India making free and compulsory Education to the Children of 6-14 years age group, a Fundamental Right. SSA is being implemented in partnership with State Governments tocover the entire country and address the needs of 192 million children in 1.1 million habitations. The programme seeks to open new schools in those habitations which do not have schooling facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional class rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grants.

POVERTY IN THE WORLD:

P OVERTY IN T HE W ORLD

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The Indian economy at the time of independence showed all the signs of stagnation. About 47% of the population was below the poverty line in 1951.This figure went up in 1964-65, came down and again went up in 1977-78. Presently the World Bank estimates that a third of the global poor reside in India. At the time of independence 72% of the work force was employed in agriculture and it contributed to nearly 50% of the national income. Industrialization was at a very low level with only 2% of the work force employed in industries. In addition to this there was hardly any investment in industries. The only industries which existed were cotton and jute industries. They also suffered a major setback, as at the time of partition major jute producing areas went to Pakistan and as a result there was a shortage of raw material. Thus, at the time of Independence, low agriculture output, little industrialization, low figure of national income, high poverty and unemployment, slow economic progress were the features of India’s economy.

Poverty in Indian states:

Poverty in Indian states STATES No. Of People BPL % of People BPL BIHAR 425.64 42.60 MADHYA PRADESH 298.54 37.43 MAHARASHTRA 227.99 25.03 ORISSA 169.09 47.15 TAMIL NADU 130.48 21.12 UTTAR PRADESH 529.89 31.15 WEST BENGAL 213.49 27.02 GOA 0.70 4.40 GUJARAT 67.89 14.07 HARYANA 17.34 8.74 HIMACHAL PRADESH 5.12 7.63 JAMMU & KASHMIR 3.46 3.48 KERALA 41.04 12.72 PUNJAB 14.49 6.16

Some shocking facts:

Some shocking facts 1 . From the total number of World's Poor people, 1/3rd is from India. 2. India when compared to African nations have more population of people living with less than 2$ per day. Almost 75 percent or 828 million people of the population is living on less than 2$ a day. 3. Almost 33% of the total World Poor population are Indians which can be equals to 14 billion people. The sub-Saharan Africa which is considered as the world's Poor region is better than Indian States. 4. Almost 42 percent of the rural population in our country lives with a per-capita income of Rs 447 monthly. As they spend only Rs 447 for essential necessities like food, clothing, fuel and electricity. Nagaland, Delhi and Jammu Kashmir have the least number of Poor in our country.

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EFFORTS BY- DEEPANSHU RAWAT DEEPANSHU MITTAL UTKARSH SURI DISHA GUPTA

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