word foramtion

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Hello Students!:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 1 Hello Students! Good Morning to all of you!

Word Formation:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 2 Word Formation Topic of the Day

Methods of Word Formation:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 3 Methods of Word Formation Using Affixes Compound formation Reduplication Initialism Acronyms Clipping

Slide 4:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 4 Contraction Elision blend Borrowings Conversions Inventions Echoism …..contd.

1. Using Affixes :

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 5 1. Using Affixes Prefixes (prefixes + base) = new word un + stable = unstable

Slide 6:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 6 1. Using Affixes boy + hood = boyhood Suffixes (base + suffixes) = new word

Slide 7:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 7 1. Using Affixes Sher-e-Punjab Infixes (between the two base word) but rarely used

2. Compound formation:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 8 2. Compound formation By joining two or more bases. Bases separated by hyphen ( though not in all cases) e.g. Fire-engine Motor-cycle

3. Reduplication :

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 9 3. Reduplication Words are formed out of two such element as are almost alike. These element may be identical or slightly different. e.g. Kit-kat Trin-trin

4. Initialism :

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 10 4. Initialism These are words formed by joining together the initial letters of other words and is read letter by letter. e.g. UN - united nations TV - television

5. Acronyms:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 11 5. Acronyms An Acronym is formed by joining together the initial letters of other words and is pronounced as a word. e.g. Basic = Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. (a computer language) AIDS = Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome.

6. Clipping:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 12 6. Clipping Some words are used in shortened form by subtracting one or more syllables from a word. e.g. Phone (Telephone) Photo (Photograph)

7. Contraction:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 13 7. Contraction A word written with a part missing from the middle . e.g. Ms. (Miss) Dept. (Department)

8. Elision:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 14 8. Elision A word or a combination of words with an apostrophe to mark the missing letter of letters. e.g. I’ve = ( I have) Bir’day = (Birthday)

9. Blend:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 15 9. Blend A fusion of two words, shortened and combined into one. e.g. brunch = [ breakfast+lunch] internet = [international+network]

10. Conversion:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 16 10. Conversion Some words can be used as nouns, verbs, adverbs or adjective without any change in the form of the word. e.g. He is observing a fast today (noun). He ran fast to catch the bus (adverb).

11. Borrowings:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 17 11. Borrowings By borrowing words from other languages. e.g. Bazaar (Persian) Guru (Hindi)

12. inventions :

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 18 12. inventions By taking words from different inventions e.g. X-rays astronaut

13. Echoism :

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 19 13. Echoism Some words are formed by the sounds that suggest their meanings. e.g. click Tick whisper

Slide 20:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 20 Thanks for having kind attention. By: Vijay Gupta M.A.,B.Ed.,PGCTE Govt. Model Secondary School Arni Wala S.S. Distt. Ferozepur (Punjab)

Slide 21:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 21 Resource Books An introduction to Linguistics Pushpinder Syal - D.V. Jindal Prantice-Hall of India 2. Learners’ Grammar Dictionary Dr. George Stern Learners’ Publishing, Australia

Slide 22:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 22 Prepared at Four Days Computer Seminar On 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 At Govt. Model Sr. Sec. School (B) Fazilka Microsoft Trainer Mr. Amit Lota

Slide 23:

By : Vijay Gupta at G.M.S.S.S.(B) Fzk. on 03-09-08 to 06-09-08 23 The End

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