Online Drinking Water Disinfection Module Part 3

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Instructors: Greg & Patresha Pearson, RN; CSUS-OWP Instructors COPYRIGHT 2011 GREPA Health & Environmental – All rights reserved:

Instructors : Greg & Patresha Pearson, RN; CSUS-OWP Instructors COPYRIGHT 2011 GREPA Health & Environmental – All rights reserved Introduction To Disinfection Dosing & Water Quality Relationships  Part 3

Chlorine is least useful in drinking water when::

Chlorine is least useful in drinking water when: Taste and odor control When protecting watershed areas Kill or inactivate pathogens Algae control Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

Chloramines are formed when chlorine is combined with? :

Chloramines are formed when chlorine is combined with? Calcium hypochlorite Ozone Ammonia Sodium hypochlorite Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

With ozone disinfectant: Which of the following is true::

With ozone disinfectant: Which of the following is true : It has very little or no residual It has Residual that does not last long Expensive to produce B and C Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

Chlorine is MOST effective against which of the following :

Chlorine is MOST effective against which of the following Viruses Bacteria Cryptosporidium A and B Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

Conditions Interfering With Chlorination Process Include::

Conditions Interfering With Chlorination Process Include: Turbidity Iron and Manganese High pH All of the above Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

Chlorine Product Containing 65- 70% Available Chlorine?:

Chlorine Product Containing 65- 70% Available C hlorine ? Sodium Hypochlorite Calcium Hypochlorite Gas chlorine All of the above Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

What Is The Chlorine Dose?:

What Is T he C hlorine Dose? Combined Residual Demand B and C Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

This Chlorine Product Raises The pH Of Water.:

This Chlorine P roduct R aises T he pH Of Water. Gas chlorine Calcium hypochlorite Sodium hypochlorite C and B Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

is 2.5 Times Heavier Than Air.:

is 2.5 T imes H eavier Than A ir . Bleach Powder chlorine Gas chlorine None of the above Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

A Fusible Plug Starts To Melt In A ` Chlorine Cylinder At This Temperature::

A F usible P lug Starts To Melt I n A ` Chlorine Cylinder At This Temperature : 158 degrees 165 degrees A and B 175 degrees Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

What Does SCBA Stand For?:

What Does SCBA Stand F or ? Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Certified Scuba Instructor Credential Self Contained Breathing Apparatus Safe Chemical Building Association Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

changing a Fusible Plug In A Chlorine cylinder :

changing a F usible P lug I n A Chlorine cylinder Monthly Annually Bi annually Never Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

1 ton chlorine cylinder repair kit :

1 ton chlorine cylinder repair kit A kit B kit C kit B and C Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

maximum feed rate for a 150 lb cylinder:

maximum feed rate for a 150 lb cylinder 450 lbs/day 40-42 lbs/day 100 lbs/day 90 lbs/day Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

chlorine liquid expansion rate:

chlorine liquid expansion rate 42 times 150 times 450 times All of the above Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

REPETITION DEEPENS LEARNING:

REPETITION DEEPENS LEARNING PLEASE TURN TO YOUR DISINFECTION WORSHEET FOR RECAPPING =  LET’S GRAB A QUICK DRINK Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

Disinfection Worksheet:

Disinfection Worksheet Dosage Calculation Concepts GREPA Health & Environmental By Patresha Pearson, RN

Lives Depend On You! :

Lives Depend On You!

Dose = Demand + Residual:

Dose = Demand + Residual 1) If the chlorine dose is 4.25 mg/l and the chlorine residual is 1.20 mg/l, what is the chlorine demand ? 1.20 mg/l 3.05 mg/l 4.25 mg/l 5.45 mg/l Dose – Residual = Demand; 4.25 - 1.2= 3.05

All chemical reactions proceed faster with an increase in temperature.:

All chemical reactions proceed faster with an increase in temperature. 2) As water temperature increases, the disinfection action of chlorine will Increase Decrease Double Indeterminate as it also depends on the pH Note: Colder conditions require longer contact time or higher doses to disinfect.

A high rate of flow from a chlorine cylinder will cause the outlet to freeze up or frost over.:

A high rate of flow from a chlorine cylinder will cause the outlet to freeze up or frost over. 3) In order to prevent freezing, what is the maximum chlorine usage per day from a 150 lb cylinder ? 12 lb 22 lb 42 lb 62 lb

Hypo-chlorinators feed liquid solutions of chlorine. :

Hypo-chlorinators feed liquid solutions of chlorine. 4) A hypochlorinator is used to a) Measure residual chlorine b) Treat iron & turbidity c) Feed a liquid chlorine solution into a water supply d) Measure an adequate amount of chlorine gas into the supply Note: Even though Calcium hypochlorite is a solid form of chlorine, it is mixed with water to form a solution before feeding into the water system .

Ammonia vapor combines with chlorine gas to form a visible vapor cloud.:

Ammonia vapor combines with chlorine gas to form a visible vapor cloud. 5) Small gaseous chlorine leaks in and around a chlorinator can be detected by the use of commercial strength a) Ammonia b) Hypochlorite c) Lime d) Soda Ash Note: Normally a plastic squeeze bottle is used that is partially filled with industrial strength ammonia. Squeezing it forces out the ammonia vapor.

A high rate of flow from a chlorine cylinder will cause the outlet to freeze up.:

A high rate of flow from a chlorine cylinder will cause the outlet to freeze up. 6) Chlorine ton cylinders will deliver gas at a maximum of a) 150 lbs/day b) 250 lbs/day c) 450 lbs/day d) 650 lbs/day Note: Ton cylinders hold 1 ton of Cl2 gas by weight. They can also be fed from the liquid port up to 900 lbs/day using a chlorine evaporator.

Ton cylinders can feed up to 900 lbs/day from the liquid port.:

Ton cylinders can feed up to 900 lbs/day from the liquid port. 7) When feeding from the liquid port of a chorine ton cylinder, what additional equipment need to be used? a) Chlorinator b) Rotameter c) Hypochlorinator d) Chlorine evaporator

Ozone is the ultimate oxide radical.:

Ozone is the ultimate oxide radical. 11) An Ozone contact chamber must have a system to collect ozone off-gas because ozone is: a) Toxic b) Explosive c) Mutagenic d) Magnetic Note: Water treatment plants will have an ozone destruct system to monitor ozone levels. The system will shut down or sound an alarm if the levels get too high.

Slide 28:

12) One volume of liquid chlorine gas will expand at room temperature and pressure to occupy how many volumes of gas? a) 16 volumes b) 46 volumes c) 460 volumes d) 960 volumes

Normal strength of sodium hypochlorite is 12.5% which is approximately 1 lb/gal:

Normal strength of sodium hypochlorite is 12.5% which is approximately 1 lb/gal 13) What is the usual percent strength of sodium hypochlorite? a) 5 to 15% b) 45 to 50% c) 65 to 70% d) 80 to 85% Note: Sodium hypochlorite is the liquid form. Calcium hypochlorite is solid 65 -70% strength.

Disinfection byproducts compounds formed from chlorine & organics.:

Disinfection byproducts compounds formed from chlorine & organics. 14) Trihalomethanes are usually associated with a ) High levels of algae in a surface water source b ) Surface water high in organics that has been chlorinated c ) Corrosive water d ) Water high in nitrates Note: Two regulated forms of DBPs are Trihalomethanes (TTHM) and Haloacetic Acids (HAA5)

Slide 31:

15) What is the recommended chlorine dosage when disinfecting a water main using the slug method? a) 50 mg/l b) 100 mg/l c) 125 mg/l d) 300 mg/l Note: With the slug of 300 mg/l chlorine moves slowly through the main and contacts every surface area for at least 3 hrs.

Any constituent in the water that uses up chlorine is called chlorine demand.:

Any constituent in the water that uses up chlorine is called chlorine demand . 16 ) Which of the following constituents represents chorine demand? a) Organic matter b) Iron & manganese c) Nitrogen compounds d) All of the above

Slide 33:

17) Which of the following substances results in the most effective disinfection residual? a) Trichloramine b) Hypochlorous acid c) Chloramine d) Chlorite Ion Note: Chlorine when mixed in water ideally forms Hypochlorous acid which does the actual disinfecting. At high pH chlorite ion forms which is weak and ineffective.

Slide 34:

18) Which of the following disinfectants is usually generated onsite ? a) Chlorine gas b) Potassium Permanganate c) Chlorine Dioxide d) Sodium Hypochlorite Note: Other disinfectants generated onsite include ozone, UV, ultrasound, and sometimes sodium hypochlorite.

Ozone is generated using high voltage electricity that splits oxygen molecules which reattach to become O3:

Ozone is generated using high voltage electricity that splits oxygen molecules which reattach to become O 3 19) What could be a limitation of using Ozone? a) Must be generated onsite b) Does not have a lasting residual c) High electrical and equipment costs d) All of the above Note: Ozone has many advantages such as less chance of DBP, excellent disinfection qualities, is a powerful oxidizer, and is great for taste and odor control. Some applications may be more cost effective than other disinfectants.

Physical & Chemical Methods:

Physical & Chemical Methods 20) UV is which of the following kind of disinfection method ? a) Radiological method b) Physical method c) Chemical method d) Physical & chemical Note: There is no such thing as a radiological method in WT. Radioactive chemicals are removed if found in drinking water.

Slide 37:

21) What is the weight of one gallon of 12.5% sodium hypochlorite with a specific gravity of 1.2? a) 8.34 lbs b) 12.5 lbs c) 7 lbs d) 10 lbs Note: 8.34lb/gal x 1.2 = 10 lbs

Slide 38:

22 ) A treatment plant produces 4 MGD of finished water which is dosed at 3 mg/l chlorine. How many lbs per day of gas chlorine will be required? a) 100 lbs b) 200 lbs c) 300 lbs d) 2,778 lbs Note: 4MGD x 3mg/l x 8.34lb/gal = 100.08 lbs

Use the gallons of liquid bleach formula:

Use the gallons of liquid bleach formula 23) A groundwater well produces a flow of 450 GPM that is to be dosed at 1.5 mg/l using 12.5% sodium hypochlorite. How many gallons of sodium hypochlorite will be needed per month, if the well operates an average of 8 hours per day and s.g . is 1.2 a) 243 gal b) 81 gal c) 6.5 gal d) 65 gal Solution: 3 steps 1) Convert 450gpm to MGD: 450gpm x 1440min/day = 648,000gal/day 648,000gpd/1,000,000 = 0.648 MGD (This is the flow rate in MGD ) 2) Use the gal of liquid bleach formula: Gallons = .648MGD x 1.5mg/l x 8.34lb/gal = 6.48gal/day (feed rate) .125 x 1.2 x 8.34lb/gal 3) Determine monthly usage: Well operates only 8hrs out or 24hrs or 1/3 of a day so it actually requires 6.48/3 or 2.16 gallons per day. Over a months time (30 days) the amount of chlorine will be 2.16 gal/day x 30day/month = 64.8 gal/mo . Closest answer is 65 gal.

Slide 40:

24) A cylindrical storage tank 25 ft in diameter is filled to the 20 ft level. How many lbs of 65% calcium hypochlorite will be required for a dose of 3 mg/l chlorine? a) 2.8 lbs b) 1.8 lbs c) 6.5 lbs d) 1.2 lbs Solution: Step 1 : Determine Volume: V=25ft x 25ft x 0.785 x 20ft x 7.48 = 73,397.5 gallons Step 2 : Converting to MG (divide by 1 million) gives 0.073MG Step 3 : Use HTH formula: lbs HTH = 0.073MG x 3mg/l x 8.34lb/gal = 2.8 lbs 0.65

Slide 41:

25) In which of the following situations would additional system disinfection have most likely been necessary? a) When an aquifer is producing a large amount of water b) A dry barrel hydrant is leaking and the upper barrel had to be repaired c) A new main was recently laid and your supervisor gives the ok to put it online d) There has been a huge rainfall, but no damage was done to the system Note: Repairing the hydrant normally would not have resulted in a loss of system pressure, however additions to the system such as mainlines always require disinfection beyond the normal chlorine residual.

Slide 42:

26) You know your water is fully disinfected when which of the following has occurred ? a) All pathogens have been sterilized in the water system b) All microbial agents have been either inactivated or destroyed c) Coliform samples have been taken and the lab returns a negative result d) Your coworker tells you the water is safe, so don’t worry Sterilization is destruction of and elimination of everything in water. The effectiveness of disinfection coincides with coliform as an indicator organism.

Slide 43:

27) A coliform sample that was taken on a windy day returned a positive result. What should the operator do? a ) Issue boil water notices immediately because there are pathogens in the water b ) Resample upstream, downstream, at the original sample site, and at the source c ) Nothing. A positive result is no reason for alarm. d ) Notify the fire dept. that the water is unsafe to use on structures . A site sampling plan will indicate routine sampling points as well as upstream and downstream re-sampling points. Congratulations you’ve completed the disinfection module!

graduate OF DISISNFECTION CONCEPTS!:

graduate OF DISISNFECTION CONCEPTS! Register Soon for Grepa’s Innovative Onlin e Workshops Contact us with water related questions: 760-402-6788 Join GREPA On Linkedin Drinking Water & Wastewater Professionals Forum & GREPA’S Contact Hour Club Enjoy the convenience and quality Grepa brings you! http://www.grepatrainers.org Copyright 2010 GRepa Health & Environmental - Do not recopy or redistribute

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