Acids and Bases

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Acids and Bases : 

Acids and Bases

Important Part of Live : 

Important Part of Live Acids Acetic Acid Vinegar Citric Acid Fruits Ascorbic Acid Vitamin C Bases Ammonia Cleaner Lye Drain Cleaner Milk of Magnesia Upset stomach

Acids and Bases are Similar : 

Acids and Bases are Similar Change color of indicators React with each other Most are electrolytes Commonly used in aqueous solution

Different Properties : 

Different Properties Acids Usually liquids or gases Many soluble in water Taste sour Produce H+ ion in water Bases Often solids Some soluble in water Taste bitter Solutions feel slippery Produce OH- ion in water

pH scale : 

pH scale Ranges from 0-14 Tells how acidic or basic a solution is A measure of the [H+] in a solution

Acid pH basics : 

Acid pH basics Acids have pH’s in the range of 1 - 7 Bases have pH’s in the range of 7 - 14 The lower the pH the more acid there is. Each number lower is ten times more acid. The higher the pH the more base there is. Each number higher is ten times more base.

Indicators : 

Indicators A common indicator of acids and bases is litmus paper that turns red (pink) in acid and blue in base. http://genchem.chem.wisc.edu/sstutorial/Text12/AcidBaseRxns/Litmus.htm

Indicators : 

Indicators Another indicator could be Phenolphthalein. It is colorless in acid and pink in base. http://www.dkimages.com/discover/Home/Science/Physics-and-Chemistry/Reactions/Reactions-35.html

Acids and Bases Arrhenius Definitions : 

Acids and Bases Arrhenius Definitions Acids contain hydrogen Formulas often begin with H+ HCl H2SO4 HC2H3O2 Bases contain hydroxide Formulas often end with OH- NaOH NH4OH Ca(OH)2

Neutraliztion Reation : 

Neutraliztion Reation HCl + NaOH  NaCl + H2O acid + base  a salt + water

Acid and Base Definitions : 

Acid and Base Definitions Arrhenius Acids form hydrogen ions (H+) in solution Bases form hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution Brønsted-Lowry Acids donate a proton (H+) in a reaction Bases accept a proton (H+) in a reaction

Slide 12: 

H The hydrogen atom The hydrogen atom - 1p+ The hydrogen atom - 1p+ & 1e- Reacts by losing an electron Leaves an H+ behind The hydrogen ion - 1p+ +

Acid and Base Definitions : 

Acid and Base Definitions Ahrennius definition is limiting Brønsted-Lowry is broader All Ahrennium acids and bases are Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases Not All Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases are Ahrennium acids and bases`

Conjugate Acids and Bases : 

Conjugate Acids and Bases A conjugate acid and base are the acid and base if the reaction was to go in the reverse direction. Remember, the acid always forms the conjugate base and the base always forms the conjugate acid!

Brønsted-Lowry Reactions : 

Brønsted-Lowry Reactions HF + CN- --> F- + HCN conjugate acid base base acid Loses H+ Gains H+

Brønsted-Lowry Reactions : 

Brønsted-Lowry Reactions HF + H2O --> F- + H3O+ conjugate acid base base acid Loses H+ Gains H+ Hydronium ion

Brønsted-Lowry Reactions : 

Brønsted-Lowry Reactions F- + H2O --> HF + OH- conjugate base acid acid base Gains H+ Loses H+

Acid Base Review : 

Acid Base Review Which is the acid? base? conjugate acid? conjugate base? HS1- + H2O  H2S + OH1-

Acid Base Review : 

Acid Base Review Which is the acid? base? conjugate acid? conjugate base? HS1- + H2O  H2S + OH1- Base Acid C. Acid C. Base

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