Nuclear Decay

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Radioactive Decay : 

Radioactive Decay Nuclear reactions can produce high-energy electromagnetic radiation (gamma rays) Nuclear reactions can produce particles of radiation.

Unstable Isotopes : 

Unstable Isotopes Too many or too few neutrons can make a nucleus unstable Small atoms have about a 1:1 ratio of neutrons to protons. Large atoms have about a 1.5:1 ratio of neutrons to protons

Isotopes with unstable nuclei : 

Isotopes with unstable nuclei Radioisotopes Radioactive Release of radiation Radioactive decay Transmutation – a new element is formed

Types of radioactive decay : 

Types of radioactive decay Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma rays Positrons

Alpha particle : 

Alpha particle Helium nucleus 2 protons and 2 neutrons 2 Decrease atomic number by 2 Decrease mass number by 4 Highly ionizing Stopped by skin or clothing 4 2+

Alpha particles : 

Alpha particles alpha decay of radon-221

Alpha particles : 

Alpha particles alpha decay of radon-221 +

Alpha particles : 

Alpha particles alpha decay of radon-221 +

Alpha particles : 

Alpha particles alpha decay of radon-221 +

Alpha particles : 

Alpha particles alpha decay of radon-221 +

Beta particle : 

Beta particle High-energy electron 1 electron -1 Increase atomic number by 1 Do not change mass number Highly ionizing Stopped by 1 cm of flesh or thin Al foil 0 1-

Beta particles : 

Beta particles beta decay of radon-221

Beta particles : 

Beta particles beta decay of radon-221 +

Beta particles : 

Beta particles beta decay of radon-221 +

Beta particles : 

Beta particles beta decay of radon-221 +

Beta particles : 

Beta particles beta decay of radon-221 +

Gamma ray : 

Gamma ray Gamma (type of electromagnetic radiation) Energy only 0 Do not change atomic number Do not change mass number Highly ionizing Stopped by inches of lead or feet of concrete 0 0

Gamma rays : 

Gamma rays gamma emission from technetium-99m

Gamma rays : 

Gamma rays gamma emission from technetium-99m +

Gamma rays : 

Gamma rays gamma emission from technetium-99m +

Gamma rays : 

Gamma rays gamma emission from technetium-99m +

Gamma rays : 

Gamma rays gamma emission from technetium-99m +

Positron : 

Positron High-energy anti-matter Same mass as electron, +1 charge +1e Decrease atomic number by 1 Do not change mass number Quickly annihilated when contacting an electron 0 +1

Positron emission : 

Positron emission positron emission from polonium-207

Positron emission : 

Positron emission positron emission from polonium-207 +

Positron emission : 

Positron emission positron emission from polonium-207 +

Positron emission : 

Positron emission positron emission from polonium-207 +

Positron emission : 

Positron emission positron emission from polonium-207 +

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