# Fission and Fusion

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### Fission and Fusion :

Fission and Fusion

### Fission :

Fission Mass of a nucleus is slightly less than the mass of its parts. mnucleus < mprotons + mneutrons mass defect Mass defect is converted to energy, and holds the nucleus together E = mc2

### Fission Reactions :

Fission Reactions Large nucleus split into two or more smaller ones, with some particles left over (maybe) A tiny bit of mass is converted into energy E = mc2 Law of Conservation of Matter does not hold true!

### Law of Conservation ofMatter and Energy :

Law of Conservation ofMatter and Energy Matter and energy can be converted Total of mass and energy is conserved

### Fission Reactions :

Fission Reactions Small amount of matter is lost Large amount of energy is produced

### Matter-Energy Conversion :

Matter-Energy Conversion If a total of 1 gram of matter is converted to energy, how much energy would that be? E = mc2 E = 0.001 kg x (3 x 108 m/s)2 E = 9 x 1013 J (1/3 of the total energy produced in PA nuclear power plants in 2006)

### Nuclear Power :

Nuclear Power U + n  ? + ? + ? + Energy Mass numbers must balance Atomic numbers must balance

### Nuclear Power :

Nuclear Power U + n  ? + ? + ? + Energy Mass numbers must balance Atomic numbers must balance

### Nuclear Power :

Nuclear Power U + n  Ba + ? + ? + Energy Mass numbers must balance Atomic numbers must balance

### Nuclear Power :

Nuclear Power U + n  Ba + Kr + ? + Energy Mass numbers must balance Atomic numbers must balance

### Nuclear Power :

Nuclear Power U + n  Ba + Kr + ? + Energy Mass numbers must balance Atomic numbers must balance

### Nuclear Power :

Nuclear Power U + n  Ba + Kr + ? + Energy Mass numbers must balance Atomic numbers must balance

### Nuclear Power :

Nuclear Power U + n  Ba + Kr + 3 n + Energy Mass numbers must balance Atomic numbers must balance

### Nuclear Power :

Nuclear Power In Pennsylvania, 34% of our electricity is produced using nuclear power. In the USA, 20% of our electricity is produced using nuclear power.

### Nuclear Power Plant :

Nuclear Power Plant Design Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Model Two models will be built, labeled, compared Questions about nuclear power Questions about atomic theory

### Nuclear Study so far… :

Nuclear Study so far… Radioactive decay Nuclear bombardment Fission reactions Next… Fusion reactions

### Nuclear Fusion :

Nuclear Fusion Two small nuclei joined by bombardment High temperature High pressure

### Nuclear Fusion :

Nuclear Fusion H + H  ? + n + Energy

### Nuclear Fusion :

Nuclear Fusion H + H  ? + n + Energy

### Nuclear Fusion :

Nuclear Fusion H + H  ? + n + Energy

### Nuclear Fusion :

Nuclear Fusion H + H  He + n + Energy

### Nuclear Fusion in Stars :

Nuclear Fusion in Stars H  He + Energy +2 e+ + 2 neutrinos Since our sun is a smaller star, it will fuse H to He to C Larger stars fuse C to O to Ne to Mg to Si to Fe

### Nuclear Fusion in Stars :

Nuclear Fusion in Stars H  He + Energy +2 e+ + 2 neutrinos Elements heavier than Fe are formed when large stars undergo supernova explosions.

### Nuclear Fusion on Earth :

Nuclear Fusion on Earth Because of the very high temperatures and pressures needed and the very large amount of energy released, we cannot yet control fusion reactions.