Adolescent issue

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ADOLESCENT ISSUE

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BACKGROUND Period of transaction Childhood to Adulthood Physical / Psychological / Behavioural changes Influenced by multiple factors Most vulnerable group Health problems are different From those of children and elders

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Health problems due to behavioural pattern Health problems are preventable Determine health of new generations Determines future of nation Lead lead verse consequences in absence of early reorganization and adequate care

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Adolescent Derived from “ Adoles care” Latin word Grow to maturity Adolescent: Period between 10 – 19 Extend from sexual maturity to 19 years Sexual maturity: Girls - 9 to 14 years Boys - 11 to 15 years

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Adolescent Population India: Accounts for 22% of Indian Population 230 million of Indian are in age group of 10-19 years Male Female

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Prevailing situation in India Changing Society : Lifestyle / Attitude / Thinking Not only in adult but in children also Disappearing joint family Guidance and problem solving by lead of the family Children not left alone / Listened and given care

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Emerging nuclear family No guidance (or) support from relatives Parents also responsible Educated and working women Parents have less time for children Children left alone in family Children to care themselves Depend of Television and Phone Experimenting adverse lifestyle

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Education: Helps in think themselves Develop decision making skills Yes Daddy Why daddy Okay mummy Not now mummy

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Adopting western culture: 50 years back : India was 50 years behind the western nations In 1960 : 20 years behind In 1970 : 10 years behind Now : Same year / Same month / Same time Parents not able to complete with change (Collaboration of valentine day) Parents not sure how to guide the children

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Compare: Fast developing field Need to complete with compare to service Population / Urbanization High growth rate Inadequate infrastructure Poor quality increasing competition for survival

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Adolescents are living in the world of revolutions in 6 major area Education Violence Sexual Familial Materialism Computer

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Changes during Adolescents Physical Changes In girls Menarche - 10 -11 Years Menstrual Cycle – 28 days Fertilization - By uniting with sperm Breast enlargement Development of genital organs Vulva, Vegina, Uterus and ovaries

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In Boys : Change in voice Hair growth in face, underarms, chest and pubic regions Enlargement of external genetalia and sperm production Penil erection and involuntary ejaculation

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Psychological and Behavioral Changes Curiosity, apprehension towards rapid physical and sexual development Comparing with others and search foe identify Sexual desire Stress and Anxiety towards career, Social status, peer group Experimenting high risk behavior

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Factors influencing Adolescent Health Nutrition: Chance for an Adolescents to grow to maximum potential High nutritional requirement to meet rapid growth and physical activity Iron, Calcium, Iodine etc.

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Missing meal / Confectionary irregular food / Alcohol / Soft drinks Low intake of micronutrients Multiple deficiency Morbidity Iron deficiency Anaemia Iodine deficiency disorders Growth retardation

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Dieting: Compare with peer growth drastic reduction of food intake Anorexia Nervosa Over eating: Obesity 10% of adolescent are obese

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Education Determines the future comes Over burden Increasing Competition Social Pressure Expectation and influence from Parents Community School Peer group

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Economic status Life Style Education Opportunity Cover / Occupation Social Status Personality Social destination Relation / Friendship

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Health Status : Congenital disorders / Accidents / Infection Life style: Eating habits Exercise Alcohol Drugs Specks

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Relation with parents Unable to discuss freely No time to discuss Parents not competent to clarity Health seeking Behavior Problem is only for old age and children not for adolescent Feeling shy (or) guilt on revealing the health problems

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Influence from Media Television Magazine Computer / Internet Sexual: Towards physical physiological change Sexual desire No adequate information High risk behaviors Pregnancy / STD / HIV / AIDS

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Consequence of various factors influencing Adolescent STORM AND STRESS During childhood: All decisions made by parents What to eat, What to sea, When to sleep Parent solve the problems During Adulthood: Felling that they grown up Decide to take own decision Unfortunately skill not always up to the expectation

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“ FEAR AND ANGER ” Fear due to : Assuming Adult role, Insecurity, planning cover, taking responsibility Anger due to: Unable to do what they want to do Unable to cope with present situation “ Fear is felt and suppressed “ “ Anger is felt and expressed Behaviors problems

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Adolescent Health Problems Congenital Disorders : CHD, Soliosis, Mental retardation Infectious diseases : Tuberclosis Poliomylitis Filariasis RHD Accident : Disabilities Skin Diseases : Acnevulgaries, saborric dermatities

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Nutritional deficiency : Iron deficiency anaemia Iodine deficiency disorder Growth retardation Menstrual problems Disfunctional uterine bleeding Dysmenorrhoea Adolescent Pregnancy: Abortion High risk Sexual transmitted diseases: STD / RTI HIV / AIDS

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Psychological: Mood disorder Anxiety neurosis Anorexia nervosa Accident Rape Homiside Suicide etc. Addiction: Alcohol Drug abuse Smoking

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Prevalence of Adolescent Health Problem

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Prevention: Most of the young adult managing the transition period with pit much damage Most of the Health problems behavior based and preventable Improve the Nutritional status Adequate information Nutrition food IFA programme

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Promote Personal hygiene Hand washing Clean Health & Tongue Daily bath Clean smegma Clean genetalia Wear dry cloth Using napkins Immunization: Hepatities, Typhoid, Rubella / Tetenus toxoid etc

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Family support: Encourage free discussion Promote health seeking behaviors Health Education Secondary sexual development Unprotected sex Adolescent Pregnancy Sexually transmitted disease addiction etc. Close observation and identifying high risk behaviors Counselling Appropriate National Programme

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CONCLUSION: Major changes occurs during adolescent period Problem age Inadequate information to deal with problems Need extra food for growth Health problems behaviors based and preventable Early identification and counselling would prevent adverse consequence Need for appropriate health programmes.

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Thanking you