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BIOMETRICS IS THE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF MEASURING AND ANALYSING BIOLOGICAL DATA .IT IS A AUTOMATED METHOD OF RECOGNISING A PERSON BASED ON PHYSCOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS SUCH AS: FACE FINGERPRINT HAND GEOMETRY IRIS RETINAL SCANNING VOICE RECOGNITION DNA FROM TISSUES 2Physiological – Biometrics based on data derived from the measurement of a part of a person’s anatomy. For example, fingerprints and iris patterns, as well as facial features, hand geometry and retinal blood vessels. Behavioral – Biometrics based on data derived from measurement of an action performed by a person and, distinctively, incorporating time as a metric, that is, the measured action. For example, voice (speaker verification): Physiological – Biometrics based on data derived from the measurement of a part of a person’s anatomy. For example, fingerprints and iris patterns, as well as facial features, hand geometry and retinal blood vessels. Behavioral – Biometrics based on data derived from measurement of an action performed by a person and, distinctively, incorporating time as a metric, that is, the measured action. For example, voice (speaker verification) 3 TYPES OF BIOMETRICSSlide 4: 4HISTORY OF BIOMETRICS: HISTORY OF BIOMETRICS The term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek words bio (life) and metric (to measure). Biometrics is becoming an interesting topic now in regards to computer and network security, however the ideas of biometrics have been around for many years. Possibly the first known example of biometrics in practice was a form of finger printing being used in China in the 14th century , Chinese merchants were stamping children's palm prints and footprints on paper with ink to distinguish the young children from one another. 5CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMETRICS: CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMETRICS Uniqueness: Generally, no two people have identical characteristics. However, identical twins are hard to distinguish. Permanence : The characteristics should not vary with time. A person's face, for example, may change with age. Collectability : The characteristics must be easily collectible and measurable. Performance : The method must deliver accurate results under varied environmental circumstances. Circumvention : The technology should be difficult to deceive 6WHY BIOMETRICS??: WHY BIOMETRICS?? Biometrics, which refers to Identifying an individual based on his or Her physiological or behavioural characteristics has the capability to Reliably distinguish between an authorized person and an imposter. This method of identification is preferred over traditional methods involving passwords and PIN numbers for various reasons: the person to be identified is required to be physically present at the point-of identification. identification based on biometric techniques obviates the need to remember a password or carry a token. 7 FINGER PRINT : FINGER PRINT 8 Among all the biometric techniques, fingerprint-based identification is the oldest method which has been successfully used in numerous applications. Everyone is known to have unique, immutable fingerprints. Large volumes of fingerprints are collected and stored everyday in a wide range of applications including forensics, access control, and driver license registration. An automatic recognition of people based on fingerprints requires that the input fingerprint be matched with a large number of fingerprints in a database.FINGER PRINT MATCHING: FINGER PRINT MATCHING 9 A fingerprint is made of a series of ridges and furrows on the surface of the finger. The uniqueness of a fingerprint can be determined by the pattern of ridges and furrows as well as the minutiae points. Minutiae points are local ridge characteristics such as crossover , island,delta,ridge bifurcation or a ridge ending. RIDGES MINUTIAESlide 10: 10 For fingerprint Recognition look at: Bifurcations. Core. Crossover. Delta. Island. Ridge Ending. Pore.Slide 11: 11FINGER PRINT CLASSIFICATION: FINGER PRINT CLASSIFICATION 12 To reduce the search time and computational complexity, it is desirable to classify these fingerprints in an accurate and consistent manner so that the input fingerprint is required to be matched only with a subset of the fingerprints in the database. Hence the need of finger print classification. Fingerprint classification is a technique to assign a fingerprint into one of the several pre-specified types such as : arch loop whorlSlide 13: 13 An input fingerprint is first matched at a coarse level to one of the pre-specified types and then, at a finer level, it is compared to the subset of the database containing that type of fingerprints only. ADVANTAGES : ADVANTAGES 14 Very high accuracy. Is the most economical biometric. it is one of the most developed biometrics Easy to use. Small storage space required for the biometric template, reducing the size of the database memory required. I t is standardized. DISADVANTAGE: DISADVANTAGE 15 It can make mistakes with the dryness or dirt of the finger’s skin, as well as with the age it is not appropriate with children, because the size of their fingerprint changes quickly. During finger print enhancement process a finger print of the size of a few kilobytes( kbs ) increases to many megabytes( Mbs ) thus increasing the overhead of storing the fingerprints.FINGER PRINT BASED DEVICES: FINGER PRINT BASED DEVICES 16 Biometric fingerprint reader or scanner is certainly the most appreciable achievement of biometrics technology, which is sprouting as a breakthrough in security provisions . It is based upon storing and comparing the key points of one’s fingers, these devices have proved their potential in areas like access control and employee attendance management. With advanced functionality and dedicated performance. A fingerprint scanner can be the best choice for an organizational securi ty.FINGER PRINT DOOR LOCK: FINGER PRINT DOOR LOCK 17 Fingerprint door lock or biometric lock is one of the most favorable security products, based upon fingerprint analysis procedure. Offering top-notch replacements to traditional locks and keys, these devices can secure your assets as well as people living in the house. With the ever-rising crime rate, you can rely upon fingerprint door lock to construct a security shield at your doorsteps. Different manufacturers are constantly upgrading the features of these safety devices, so that they can provide you with peace of mind.Slide 18: COMPONENTS OF BIOMETRICS Enrollment Sensor pre-processing Feature extractor Template generator Stored template Matcher Application deviceIris Recognition : Iris RecognitionOPERATING PRINCIPLE: OPERATING PRINCIPLESlide 22: ADVANTAGES Very high accuracy. Verification time is generally less than 5 seconds. The eye from a dead person would deteriorate scans to be sure the user is a living human being. DISADVANTAGES Intrusive. A lot of memory for the data to be stored. Very expensiveMULTIBIOMETRICS: MULTIBIOMETRICS 23 A reliable identity management system is a critical component in several applications that render services to only legitimately enrolled users. Most biometric systems that are presently in use, typically use a single biometric trait to establish identity that is they are uni biometric systems. These systems also help in the continuous monitoring or tracking of an individual in situations when a single trait is not sufficient. A multibiometric system may also be viewed as a fault tolerant system which continues to operate even when certain biometric sources become unreliable due to sensor or software malfunction.ADVANTAGES : ADVANTAGES 24 Increase of reliability and identification quality. A variety of identifiers that can be used conjointly or separately (for instance, the ability to identify a person by fingerprints in case his/her voice or face is considerably altered). Higher Accuracy More secure More robust Higher fraud resistanceDISADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES 25 More complex biometric capturing processes. More complex devices and algorithms. Higher operational costs.APPLICATIONS OF BIOMETRICS: APPLICATIONS OF BIOMETRICS 26 Biometrics is a rapidly evolving technology which is being widely used in forensics such as criminal identification and prison security, and has the potential to be used in a large range of civilian application areas. Biometrics can be used to prevent unauthorized access to ATMs, cellular phones, smart cards, desktop PCs, workstations, and computer networks. It can be used during transactions conducted via telephone and internet (electronic commerce and electronic banking). In automobiles, biometrics can replace keys with key-less entry devices.BIOMETRIC GUN SAFE: BIOMETRIC GUN SAFE 27 If you own guns you probably already know the importance of having them secured when inside the home.BIOMETRICS MOUSE: BIOMETRICS MOUSE 28 Biometric mouse was an unimaginable device few years back, but with the advent of biometrics in different walks of life, computer accessories like keyboard and mouse were also installed with biometric security. From fingerprint recognition to encryption of files and folders, security of your computer is commanded with such a mouse in your hand. Installing this device at your desktop adds a new layer of security, which is much-deserved by your computers.BIOMETRICS WALLET: BIOMETRICS WALLET 29 Biometric wallets containing alarming features like a Bluetooth proximity alarm fingerprint sensor for optimum security ,it is virtually sturdy and can only be accessed with your fingerprint. If you’re paranoid that someone may take the entire wallet, there’s nothing to worry as the cool billfold can be linked to a mobile phone through Bluetooth, and alarms will set off if your phone or wallet are separated by more than 5 meters. There’s nothing to worry about chipped edges and cracked nooks and crannies, this wallet is more than sturdy and durable.BIOMETRIC PEN DRIVE: BIOMETRIC PEN DRIVE 30 USB flash drive with OLED display an integrated biometric finger print scanner on the OLED screen. You can save your important files, and by chance you loose it, it cannot be used by anybody else, as the retractor will scan for the right finger print. Now that’s putting technology, data security and biometrics to use in one product. With this flash drive, you can always be sure about your data, even if in case you accidentally loose the drive, or if the drive ends up in wrong hands.FINGER PRINT READER KEYBOARD: FINGER PRINT READER KEYBOARD 31 Fingerprint reader keyboard allows you to protect your most sensitive computer passwords and other data by asking for a biometric-based authentication. If you are not the authorized user, you won’t be allowed to access a computer or laptop. The working of a fingerprint reader keyboard is similar to any other biometric device designed to offer biometric security.FUTURE PROSPECTS: FUTURE PROSPECTS 32 The future of biometrics holds great promise for law enforcement applications, as well for private industry uses. By measuring facial geometry, surveillance systems can identify suspects against characteristics stored in the security . Biometrics' future will include e-commerce applications for extra security on the checkout page, and biometrics will guard against unauthorized access to cars and cell phones. In the future, biometric technology will further develop 3-D infrared facial recognition access control, real-time facial recognition passive surveillance, and visitor management authentication systems.CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION 33 Technology is growing, but at the same time security breaches and transaction frauds are also in the increase world over. All agencies that are in need of security, surveillance and safety have to adopt biometrics. The introduction of biometrics affects the way our society is evolving towards a knowledgeable society and poses a number of technological challenges. These needs to be addressed in the near future if policy is to shape the use of biometrics rather than react to it. Many factors must be taken into account when implementing a biometric device including location, security risks, task (identification or verification), expected number of users, user circumstances, existing data, disabilities Multimodal technology makes biometrics works You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.