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Ayurveda Says Let Food be Your Medicine

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Greek Physician Hippocrates, Known as Father of Medicine. (said several centuries ago) “Let Food be Your Medicine ” The Philosophy behind is: “Focus on Prevention”

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The term “Nutraceutical” was coined from “ Nutrition ” & “ Pharmaceutical ” in 1989 by Stephen DeFelice MD, Founder and Chairman of the Foundation for Innovation in Medicine (FIM). Other words used in the context: Dietary supplements, Functional food, Multi-functional Food, etc.

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Nutraceutical can be defined as “ A food or part of food or nutrient, that provides medical or health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of a disease .”

According to american association of nutritional chemists:

According to american association of nutritional chemists The product that has been isolated or purified from food and generally sold in medicinal forms not usually associated with food.

With passage of dietary supplement, health and education act (dshea):

With passage of dietary supplement, health and education act (dshea) is a product (other than tobacco) that is intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino acid, a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total daily intake, or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combinations of these ingredients. is intended for ingestion in pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid form. is not represented for use as a conventional food or as the sole item of a meal or diet.

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CONTD….. is labelled as a "dietary supplement." includes products such as an approved new drug, certified antibiotic, or licensed biologicals that was marketed as a dietary supplement or food before approval, certification, or license (unless the Secretary of Health and Human Services waives this provision).

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Simply, Nutraceuticals means , NUTRITIVE +PHARMACEUTICAL : a food stuff(as a fortified food or dietary supplement) that provides health benefits. The functinonal food concept can be defined as “Food products to be taken as part of the usual diet in order to have benefitial effects that go beyond basic nutritional function.”


CLASSIFICATION 1. NUTRACEUTICALS BASED ON THEIR SOURCE :- SOURCE NUTRACEUTICALS PLANTS Tomato, Garlic, Momordica, ANIMALS Shark liver oil Cod liver oil MINERALS Calcium Magnesium Phosphorous MICRO-ORGANISMS Bifidobacterium Lactobacilli

2.Nutraceuticals used in various disease condition:

2.Nutraceuticals used in various disease condition CONDITION NUTRACEUTICALS Allergy relief Ginkgo biloba Arthritis support Glucosamine Cancer prevention Flax seed, Green tea Cardiac disease Garlic Cholesterol lowering Garlic Digestive support Digestive enzymes Diabetic support Garlic, Momordica Female hormone support Black conosh, False Unicorn Immunomodulators Ginseng Prostate support Tomato lycopenes

3. nutraceuticals as per the chemical groupings :

3. nutraceuticals as per the chemical groupings CLASS/CHEMICAL GROUPINGS EXAMPLES Inorganic mineral supplements Minerals Vitamin supplements Vitamins Digestive enzymes Enzymes Probiotics Helpful bacteria Prebiotics Digestive enzymes Dietry fibers Fibers-fruits, cereals

CONTD….. :

CONTD….. CLASS/CHEMICAL GROUPINGS EXAMPLES Cereals and grains Wheat, Soya bean Health drinks Fruit juice and vitamins Poly unsaturated fatty acids PUFA Fish oil Antioxidants Natural antioxidants Phytochemicals- Flavonoids- Isoprenoids- Proteins- Bioflavonoids Carotenoids Soyaproteins


EXAMPLES OF FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS A Glossary of Terms… Amino acid: One of the building blocks of protein. Antioxidant: A substance that blocks or inhibits the actions of free radicals, molecules that speed up the aging process and contribute to illness. Free radicals are found in rancid fats and oils and environmental hazards. Arteriosclerosis: Condition in which the walls of arteries become hard and thick, sometimes interfering with blood circulation. Caffeic acid : An acid obtained from coffee tannin, as a yellow crystalline substance. Carotenoids : One of the most widespread groups of naturally occurring pigments. These compounds largely are responsible for the red, yellow and orange colour of fruits and vegetables and also are found in many dark green vegetables.

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Chelation: A process that wraps or binds the minerals in amino acids, it uses an agent, such as the chemical compound EDTA, to remove heavy metals from the body. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM): A group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices and products that presently are not considered part of conventional medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with conventional medicine. Alternative medicine is used in place of conventional medicine.

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Enzyme: A complex protein produced by cells that acts as a catalyst in specific biochemical reactions. Ferulic acid: A compound, C10H10O4, related to vanillin and obtained from certain plants. Flavanoids: A class of water-soluble plant pigments. Genetically engineered food: A food substance that has foreign genes inserted into its genetic code. Genetic engineering can be done with plants, animals or microorganisms. Scientists can move desired genes from one plant into another and even from an animal to a plant, or vice versa.

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Holistic medicine: An approach to medical care that emphasizes the study of all aspects of a person’s health, including physical, psychological, social, economic and cultural factors. Homeopathy: A complementary and alternative medical system. In homeopathic medicine, there is a belief that small, highly diluted quantities of medicinal substances are given to cure symptoms, when the same substances given at higher or more concentrated doses actually would cause those symptoms. Isoflavones: A class of organic compounds and bio molecules related to the flavonoids . They act as phytoestrogens , which are thought by many to be useful in treating cancer.

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Isothiocyanates: Sulfur-containing compounds that largely are responsible for the typical flavour of cruciferous vegetables. Mineral: A naturally occurring inorganic substance with a definite and predictable chemical composition and physical properties. Nutrient: Any substance that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and build tissue. Phenols: Also known under the older name of carbolic acid, a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor.

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Phytoestrogens: Compounds that occur naturally in plants (phyto) and under certain circumstances can have actions like human estrogen. Plant stanols and sterols : Essential components of plant cell membranes that resemble cholesterol structurally. Plant sterols are present naturally in small quantities in many fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, cereals, legumes, vegetable oils and other plant sources. Plant stanols occur in even smaller quantities than plant sterols in many of the same sources. Polyols: Chemical compounds containing multiple hydroxyl groups. Sugar alcohols, a class of polyols, commonly are added to foods because of their lower caloric content

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Prebiotics: Food substances that promote the growth of certain bacteria (generally beneficial) in the intestines. Probiotics: Dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeast. Saponins: Any of various plant glucosides that form soapy lathers when mixed and agitated with water. They are used in detergents, foaming agents and emulsifiers. Sulfides: Refers to several types of chemical compounds containing sulfur. Thiols: Compounds containing the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom. Vitamin: An organic substance essential in small quantities to normal metabolism.

1. Fatty acids:

1. Fatty acids Class / components Source Potential benefit Monosaturated fatty acids Tree nuts May reduce risk of coronary heart disease

Contd…… 2. Polyphenols……:

Contd…… 2. Polyphenols…… Anthocyanidine Fruits Nutralises free radicals, Reduce risk of cancer Catechins Tea, babul pods, mustard cake, rape seed,salseed Flavonone Citrus Flavones Fruits, vegetables, soya bean Proanthocyanidine Cocoa, chocolate,tea,rape seed Reduce CVD

CONTD……… :

CONTD……… Class / components Source Potential benefit 3. Saponins Soybeans, lucerne, chick pea Lower cholesterol, Anti cancer

CONTD…. 4.Probiotic / Prebiotic / Synbiotic:

CONTD…. 4.Probiotic / Prebiotic / Synbiotic Class / components Source Potential benefit Lactobacillus Dahi, Yogurt Improve GI health Fructo - oligosaccharides Whole grains, Onions, Combination of Pro & Prebiotics

CONTD…. 5.Phytoestrogen :

CONTD…. 5.Phytoestrogen Class / components Source Potential benefit Daidzein , Zenistein Soybean, Flax, Lentilseed,Maize, Berseem,Lucerne,Subabul fodder Reduce menopause symptoms,  bone health Lignans Flax, Rye, Vegetables Reduce cancer and heart diseases

CONTD…. 6.Caroteinoids :

CONTD…. 6.Caroteinoids Class / components Source Potential benefit  - caroteine Berseem,Lucerne ,Oat & Maize fodder, Carrots, Vegetabels,Fruits Nutralises free radicals Luteine Vegetabels Healthy vision Zeoxanthine Eggs,citrus,corn Lycopene Tomato Reduce prostate cancer

CONTD…. 7.Dietary fiber :

CONTD…. 7.Dietary fiber Class / components Source Potential benefit Insoluble fiber Wheat bran Reduce breast, colon cancer -glucan Oats Reduce CVD Whole grain Cereal grains

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Common Nutrients and their associated Health benefits

Slide 29:

Broadly can be defined as: Nutrients : Substances which have established Nutritional functions e.g. Vitamins, Minerals, Amino Acids, Fatty acids, etc. Herbals/ Phytochemicals : Herbs or Botanical products Dietary Supplements : Probiotics, Prebiotics, Antioxidents, Enzymes, etc.

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NUTRIENTS Most common Nutrients used/ supplemented as Nutraceutical are: Minerals and Vitamins. OR in combination OR in combination with other antioxidants

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Vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A : Acts as antioxidant, essential for growth and development, maintains healthy vision, skin and mucous membranes, may aid in the prevention and treatment of certain cancers and in the treatment of certain skin disorders.

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Vitamin D : Essential for formation of bones and teeth, helps the body to absorb and use calcium. Vitamin E : Antioxidant, helps to form blood cells, boosts immune system. Vitamin K : Essential for blood clotting.

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Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin C : Antioxidant, necessary for healthy bones, gums, teeth and skin. Helps in wound healing, prevent from common cold. Vitamin B 1 : Helps in carbohydrate metabolism, essential for neurological function. Vitamin B 2 : Energy metabolism, maintain healthy eye, skin and nerve function.

Slide 34:

Contd.... Vitamin B 3 : Energy metabolism, brain function. Vitamin B 6 : Helps to produce essential proteins, convert proteins in to energy. Vitamin B 12 : Help in producing genetic material, formation of RBC, maintenance of CNS, synthesis of amino acids, involved in metabolism of protein, fat and carbohydrate.

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Contd...... Folic acid : Helps in RBC formation, formation of genetic material of cell, very much essential during pregnancy Pantothenic acid : Aids in synthesis of cholesterol, steroids, and fatty acids, crucial for intraneuronal synthesis of acetylcholine

Slide 36:

Vitamins like Compounds L- Carnitine : Helps in oxidation of fatty acids, role in oxidative phosphorylation . Choline : Lipotropic agent, used to treat fatty liver and disturbed fat metabolism . Inositol : For amino acid transport and movement of Potassium and sodium. Taurine : Helps in retinal photoreceptor activity, bile acid conjugation, WBC antioxidant activity, CNS neuromodulation, platelet aggregation, cardiac contractibility, sperm motility, insulin activity .

Slide 37:

Minerals : Calcium : essential for building bone and teeth and maintaining bone strength,important in nerve, muscle and glandular function. Iron : Helps in energy production, helps to carry and transfer oxygen to tissues. Magnesium : for healthy nerve and muscle function, bone formation. Phosphorous : energy production, phosphorylation process, bone and teeth, for genetic material.

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TRACE ELEMENTS Cobalt : essential component of Vit. B 12,but ingested cobalt is metabolised in vivo to form the B 12 coenzymes. Copper : essential for Hb and collagen production, healthy function of heart, energy production, absorption of Iron from digestive tract. Iodine proper gland, function of Thyroid . Chromium : with insulin it helps to conversion of carbohydrate and fat into energy.

Slide 39:

Selenium : Antioxidant essential for healthy functioning of heart muscle. Zinc : Essential for cell reproduction, for development in Neonates, wound healing, production of sperm and testosterone hormone.

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Phytochemicals : Phytochemicals could provide health benefits as: Substrate for biochemical reactions, Cofactors of enzymatic reactions , Inhibitors of enzymatic reactions, Absorbents that bind to & eliminate undesirable constituent in the intestine , Scavengers of reactive or toxic chemicals ,

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Enhance the absorption and / or stability of essential nutrients, Selective growth factor for beneficial bacteria , Fermentation substrate for beneficial bacteria , Selective inhibitors of deleterious intestinal bacteria,

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Various Phytochemicals Phytochemicals Source Role Tocotrienols & tocopherols Grains Suppressed the growth of diverse tumors cell lines via initiation of apoptosis and concomitant arrest of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle Carotenoids Fruits & vegetables Antioxidants, protects against uterine, prostate, colorectal, lung and digestive tract cancers, and protection to other antioxidants.

Contd….. :

Contd….. Limonoids Citrus fruits Inhibiting phase I enzymes & inducing phase II detoxification enzymes in liver, provide protection to lung tissue. Phytosterols Various plants Exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic , anti-pyretic & immune- modulating activity, decrease cholesterol

Contd…. :

Contd… . Phenolic constituents Various plants, wholegrain Antioxidants, lowers the risk of CHD, diabetes, hypertension etc. Flavonoids Grapes, wines Action against free radicals, free radicals mediated cellular signaling, inflammation, allergies, platelet aggregation, & hepatotoxins

Contd…. :

Contd…. Catechin & gallic acids Grapes, berries, cocoa, green tea, acacia spp. Antioxidants, free radical scavenging ability, inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis, reduces CHD Isoflavonoids Soybeans Treating cancers & osteoporosis Anthocyanidins Fruits & flowers Antioxidants & anti-mutagenic properties

Contd… :

Contd… Glucosinolats Crucifeus Activators of liver detoxification enzymes, inhibit the neoplastic effect of various carcinogens Indoles Reduces estrogen-dependent cancer risk, Fiber Various vegetables, fruits, Protects against colorectal diseases,

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ANTIOXIDANT…….. A substance that blocks or inhibits the actions of free radicals, molecules that speed up the aging process and contribute to illness. Free radicals are found in rancid fats and oils and environmental hazards.

Naturally Occurring Antioxidants:



CONTD…. ANTIOXIDANTS SOURCE XANTHOPHYLLS- B-CRYPTOXANTHIN LUTEIN ZEAXANTHIN Mango, Papaya, Orange Banana, Egg yolk, Green vegetable Paprica HYDROXYCINNAMATES- FERULIC ACID CAFFEIC ACID Cabbage, Spinach, Grains White grapes, Olive, Spinach

Contd…. :

Contd… . ANTIOXIDANTS SOURCE FLAVONOIDS----- Flavones—RUTIN LUTEOLIN Buckwheat & tobacco, Lemon & olive Flavonols---QUERCETIN KAEMPFEROL Onion & black grapes, Grape fruit & tea Flavonone—NARINGIN TAXIFOLIN Citrys peels, & Citrus fruits CHALCONES— LIQUIRITIN Liquorice



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Method to enhance active components in food Manipulating the diet to get maximum level of active components Combination of food ingredients rich in nutraceuticals Fortifying food with active ingredients By fermentation of food products Changing food habits to natural type of diet

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Commonly used plants as a nutraceuticals (inlist)…..:

Commonly used plants as a nutraceuticals (inlist)….. Common name Botanical name & Family 1. Apple Pyrus malus ………….…...Rosaceae 2.Banana Musa sapientum ………….Musaceae 3.Dates Phoneix dactylifera …….....Palmae 4.Grapes Vitis vinifera ……………….Vitaceae 5.Guava Psidium guajava ……….....Myrtaceae 6.Jack fruit Artocarpus integrifolia …..Moraceae 7.Lime Citrus acida ………………..Rutaceae 8.Orange Citrus reticulata................. Rutaceae 9.Mango Mangifera indica ………….Anacardiaceae 10.Water melon Citrullus vulgaris …………Cucurbitaceae 11.Papaya Carica papaya ……………..Caricaceae 12.Pineapple Ananasa sativa …………….Bromeliaceae

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Common name Botanical name Family 13.Tomato(Love apple) Lycopersicum Solanaceae 14.Litchi Litchi chinensis Sapindaceae 15.Cabbage Brassica oleracea Cruciferae 16.Coriander leaves Coriandrum sativum Umblelliferae 17.Drumstick leaves Moringa oleifera Moringaceae 18.Mint Mentha arvensis Labiatae 19.Brahmi Cenella asiatica Umbelliferae 20.Amla Phyllanthus emblica Euphorbiaceae 21.Soya bean Glycine max Papilionaceae 22.Beet root Beta vulgaris Chenopodiaceae 23.Carrot Allium carota Umbelliferae 24.Onion Allium cepa Liliaceae 25.Potato Solanum tuberosum Solanaceae 26.Sweet potato Ipomoea batata Convolvulaceae

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Common name Botanical name Family 27.Almond Prunus amygdalus Rosaceae 28.Coconut Cocuos nucifera Palmae 29.Olive oil Olea europaea Oleaceae 30.Sun flower seed Helianthus annus Compositae 31.Maize Zea mays Graminae 32.Cardamom Elettaria cardamomum Zingiberaceae 33.Clove Eugenia caryophyllus Myrtaceae 34.Garlic Allium sativum Liliaceae 35.Ginger Zingiber officinale Zingiberaceae 36.Turmeric Curcuma longa Zingiberaceae 37.Honey Nectar of flowers ………………. 38.Ginseng Panax ginseng Araliaceae 39.Ginkgo Ginkgo biloba Ginkgoaceae 40.Echinacea Echinacea purpurea Asteraceae 41.Nutmeg Myristica fragrans Myristicaceae

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GARLIC It is the dried bulbs of Allium sativum ( Liliaceae ). Chemical composition:-- It contains……….. Carbohydrates ( fructans ), Saponins ( furostanol glycosides Sativin Proto- erubin B and more , And mostly known for its Sulfur- containing compounds . The chief constituent of fresh undamaged garlic is ALLIIN or S- allyl -L-(+)- cysteine sulfoxide .

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Upon cutting or bruising the tissue, alliin is degraded by an enzyme, alliinase (S-alkyl-L-cysteine lyase) to pyruvic acid and 2-propenesulfenic acid,with the latter being immediately transformed into allicin (0.3% of the fresh weight). Air oxidation of allicin leads to 1,7-dithiaocta-4,5-diene, known as diallyldisulfide: this is the chief constituents of garlic volatile oil.

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Vitamin and Mineral Content : B-vitamins especially B-1, vitamin C, vitamin A, flavonoids , ascorbic acid, phosphorous, potassium,sulphur , selenium, calcium, magnesium, germanium, sodium,iron , manganese and trace iodine. Seventeen amino acids are found in garlic, including eight essential ones. Character : antibiotic, antihistamine, anticoagulant, expectorant, antibacterial, antiparasitic , alterative, diaphoretic, diure t i c ,expectorant, stimulant, antispasmodic, promotes sweating, lowers blood sugar and blood cholesterol levels, lowers blood pressure Body Systems Targeted: respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, and nervous

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HERBAL FORMS Fresh Rub : A fresh clove of garlic can be used directly on warts and verrucae . When added to the diet, it works as a prophylactic against infection, helps to reduce high blood cholesterol and improves the cardiovascular system. Eating garlic regularly can also help to lower blood sugar levels. Juice: Garlic juice can be taken for digestive disorders, infectious diseases and for atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). Capsules : Powdered garlic can be taken in capsules and can be purchased in deodorized form. Garlic capsules are a convenient way to supplement the diet with garlic and are good for heart disease, high blood pressure and to fight infections of any kind.

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Pearls: Pearls are capsulized garlic oil which have been deodorized 6 Garlic . Maceration : Garlic cloves can be steeped in water overnight and taken as a treatment for intestinal parasites. Aged Oil: Considered by some to be a superior form of garlic. Storage: Fresh garlic can be stored in a cool, dry, dark place. Garlic extracts and oils should be kept in dark bottles and can be refrigerated.

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Regulatory Status US: generally recognized as sage UK: general sales list Canada: over-the-counter drug status France: traditional medicinal use Germany: commission E approved as over-the counter drug

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PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY Tradition attributes garlic several properties which have been verified experimentally, including the antibacterial and antifungal activity which have been shown in vitro. During the last ten year , animal experiments have demonstrated that garlic extracts able to decrease blood cholesterol and triglycerides( in the rabbit and the rat ), and have antihypertensive effects ( in the rat ). The activity against platelet aggregation, shown in vitro, is linked to ajoenes which inhibit lipoxygenase.

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ACTIVITY IN HUMANS:-- Several multicenter double blind trials tend to show the usefulness of garlic powder standardized for alliin as a blood cholesterol-lowering agent (600-800 mg/day for 4 months ; about 9% decrease in cholesterolemia). On the basis of clinical observation , that standardized garlic preparation probably have a hypotensive activity in moderately hypertensive subjects, and that they might have a fibrinolytic activity.

Slide 65:

GARLIC AND CARCINOGENESIS Several epidemiological studies shows an inverse correlation between the regular consumption of garlic and the risk of stomach cancer. They confirm the observation made in the early 1980s in China where the frequency of stomach cancer was 13 times lower in a province where garlic consumption was 20g/day than in another province where garlic eaten only occasionally.

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USES…….. P revents cancer ( colon &lung ), Hypoglycemic , and as Antispasmodic . Garlic powder preparation might be of some clinical use in subjects with mild hypertension . Shown to prevent Atherosclerosis . (Koscienlny J. et al.1999). Garlic extract protects tissues against oxidative damage . Aged garlic extract, but now raw garlic, has been shown to prevent oxidation of LDL cholesterol in humans (Munday al.1999). Along with ginkgo it is also decreased excessive blood coagulation (Kiesewetter al.1990).

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Compounds like diallyl sulfides, diallyl disulfides, and quercetin which are active components of garlic , have known anti-inflammatory, ant mutagenic activities. Ajoene is a synthetic derivatives of garlic that inhibits aggregation of human platelets induced by all known agents. Antibacterial , Carminative , and Nervine tonic , Treatment of Gout and Rheumatism , excellent tonic, increase longevity and keep one to fit work in old age, medicine for Cardiac failure , Anemia and Tuberculosis , powerful intestinal antiseptic , in Whooping cough , Aphrodisiac and check abortion in early pregnancy.


GINKGO BILOBA CHINESE DRUG… Also known as Maidenhair tree, also called in French the forty-coin tree. It is the dried leaves and edible seeds of Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae). The tree is commercially cultivated in France and the United State of America.


CHEMICAL COMPOSITION….. Sterol, aliphatic alcohols and ketones, 2-hexenal, organic acids, cyclitols, mono- and polysaccharides. The ginkgo leaves contains two groups of compounds with interesting pharmacological properties:---- Flavonoids (0.5%-1%) and Terpenes—diterpenes (up to 0.5%,wide range depending on individual trees , season ) and Sesquiterpenes ( bilibalide ) Flavonoids are represented by about 20 flavonol glycosides, namely O-glucosides , quercetin and kaempferol 3- O-rhamnosides and 3-O-ritinosides,

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Ginkgo leaf also contains flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, and biflavonoid. Buds are the organs with the highest acylated flavonoid content…….the biflavonoid level is three times higher in the fall than in spring,

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Key application:- Standardized dry extract—for symptomatic treatment of disturbed performance in organic brain syndrome within the regimen of a therapeutic concept in cases of dementia syndromes—memory deficits, disturbance in concentration, depressive emotional conditions, dizziness, tinnitus and headache. ( German Commission E, ESCOP, WHO.) As vasoactive and platelet aggregation inhibitor. Th e National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine , USA, is conducting a 5-year study of 3000 people aged 75 and older to determine if ginkgo, 240 mg daily ,prevents dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. ( 2000.

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PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION :- its action due to vasodilatory flavanoids i.e.ginkolide B (PAF antagonist ) which indicate activity against Inflammatory process & improve cerebral blood circulation. Extract showed antioxidant activity. It also neuroprotective against beta- amyloid & NO –induced toxicity & could reduced apoptosis (JOURNAL OF AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION) BILOBALIDE-were protective against ischaemia -induced neuronal death. Among the various mechanisms involved in hepatotoxic effect of carbon tetrachloride, one is oxidative damage through free radical generation and antioxidant property is claimed to be one of the mechanisms of hepatoprotective effect DOSE :40mg of active principle with 9mg of flavone glycoside


GINGER SYN:Adrak,Zingiber. It consists of rhizhomes of Zingiber officinale family Zingiberaceae. More than 35% of the world’s productionis from india.

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CONSTITUENTS : 1-3% of volatile oil, pungent principles viz., gingerols and shogaols . Sesqui and monoterpenes constituents: Zingiberene and bisaboline . Gingeroleoresin contains mainly the pungent principles gingerols , shogaols & zingiberone. Shogaols have recently been found to be twice as pungent as gingerols1-4

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Traditional use: Ginger is carminative, pungent, stimulant, used widely for in digestion, stomachache. Ginger with lime juice and rock salt increases appetite and stimulates the secretion of gastric juices. It used in chest congestion, chronic bronchitis, cold extremities, colic, colitis,common cold, cough, difficulty in breathing, dropsy, fever, flatulent, disorders of gallbladder, hyperacidity, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, morning sickness, sore throat, throat ache, stomach ach Pharmacology and Clinical Studies: The gingerols and shogaols were subsequently identified as the main anti-emetic compounds in ginger.

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9g of crystallised ginger had a profound effect on saliva production. Amylase activity was also incresed. Intraduodenal doses of ginger extract increased bile secretion in rats. Total secretion of bile solids was also increased, but not to the same extent as bile flow. 6- gingerol and 10-gingerol were identified as the active components. Ginger and 6-gingerol inhibited experimental gastric ulcers in rats9-10. Fresh ginger decocted in water resulted in symptomatic improvement in 10 patients with peptic ulcers. aqueous extract of ginger inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, epinephrine, collagen and arachidonic acid in vitro. The antiplatelet action of 6-gingerol was also mainly due to the inhibition of thromboxane formation

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Ginger exerted a powerful positive inotropic effect on isolated guinea pigs left atria. Gingerols were identified as the active components It has also a antioxidant. Antihepatotoxic activities of gingerols and shogaols were observed using carbon tetrachloride induced cytotoxicity in cultured rat hepatocytes Ginger extract given orally reduced fever in rats by 38%, while the same dose of aspirin was effective by 44% . 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol has responsible for this action


echinacea It is dried herb obtained from the Ehinaceae purpurea- purple coneflower Echinacea angustifolia – Narrow-leaf Coneflower Echinacea simulata – Wavyleaf Purple Coneflower Echinacea pallida – Pale Purple Coneflower Echinacea laevigata – Smooth Coneflower, Smooth Purple Coneflower

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CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT: PHENOLIC COMP:- cichoric acid and caftaric acid Polysaccharides:-(molecular weight between 30,000 and 100,000) echinacoside(caffeoyl derivative) Alkylamides:- dodeca-2Z,4E,10Z-trien-8-ynoic acid isobutylamide from E. angustifolia and dodeca-2Z,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide from E. purpurea and E. pallida

Slide 80:

PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION :- Antiinflammatory principle are polyssaccharides &alkylamide. Mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity comes mainly via: inhibited oedema,COX-I and COX-II enzymes inhibition, cytokine antibody stimulation inhibit IL-6 and IL-8 ,PGE(2) inhibition with a synergistic manner,COX-2 enzyme n-hexane extract (alkamide fraction) got found ability inhibition the enzyme COX and 5-LOX . AS IMMUNOMODULATOR :- ethanol fractions of 3 species Echinacea spp(Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida and E. angustifolia roots) & alcoholic extracts of the roots of E. pallida, E. angustifolia and E. purpurea contain polyssaccharide

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& alkamide fraction responsible for immunomodulating action by stimulating the phagocytosis ,macrophages , antigen-specific immunoglobulin production, increase NK cell numbers ,pro-inflammatory cytokines trigger,NFkappaB levels inhibition which induce immune response . Anti- Tumor and Anti-Cancer effects: AntiCancer effects are identified via human cancer cells viability reduction,apoptosis induction via prompting caspase 3/7 activity and nuclear DNA fragmentation,direct cytotoxicity on cancer cells,cytotoxic activity on human cancer cell linesylamide due to alkylamides named as dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (A1) and dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid isobutyl. HIV-1 integrase inhibitor got proposed may be attributed to l- Chicoric acid .

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Antioxidant activity : it scavenging hydroxyl radicals,human low-density lipoprotein oxidation . due to echinacea root extract of 3 species(Root extracts of E. angusifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea),phenolic composition,cichoric acid,echinacoside,Echinacea tincture,Echinacea purpurea aerial parts chloroform extract. Photodamage of skin by UVA/UVB radiation and free-radical induced injury protection property got proved from caffeoyl derivatives of Echinacea specis(including echinacoside, chlorogenic acid, chicoric acid, cynarine, and caffeic acid) Common Cold(acute viral respiratory tract infection) Treatment Other Applications : Antifungal activity, Anti-Bacterial, Acute sore throats .


ginseng Synonym: ninjin, pannag, panax, manroot. It is obtained from the dried root of Panax ginseng -korean ginseng American ginseng- P. quinquefolius Siberian ginseng- Eleutherococcus senticosus P.japonica -japenese ginseng P.notoginseng -chinese ginseng Family; Araliaceae It grow widely & commercially in china , japan ,russia & USA

Slide 84:

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS :- Ginsenosides (root, leaves & bud) Panaxosides(plant) Beta carotene(root) Phytosterol :-stigmasterol, beta sitosterol, campesterol(root) Fiber(pectin in root), minerals & vitamins Ginsenosides

Slide 85:

PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION Reducing mental stress and anxiety Increasing mental clarity and alertness Stimulating the immune and nervous system Treating diabetes Preventing the growth of certain types of cancer cells Lowering cholesterol levels Improving digestion Reducing fatigue Improving athletic endurance Ginsenosides -. These steroid-like phytochemicals have adaptogenic properties, which give ginseng property to counter the effects of stress. The glycosides act on the adrenal glands, helping to prevent adrenal hypertrophy and excess corticosteroid production in response to stress. Ginsenosides increase protein synthesis and

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activity of neurotransmitters in the brain. Ginseng stimulates the formation of blood vessel and improves blood circulation in the brains, thereby improving memory and cognitive abilities. Ginseng is also used for diabetes, migraine, infections, radiation and chemotherapy protection, to aid in sleep, and to stimulate the appetite. Korean ginseng contains steroids such as panaxtriol. The steroids are remarkably similar in structure to anabolic steroids . Korean ginseng is also used by women for treatment of post menopausal symptoms. due to its antioxidant properties, is used for delaying the symptoms of early aging.


liquorice SYN: MULETHI It consists of dried root & stolon of Glycyrrhiza glabra fam. leguminosae G. typica (spanish liq.) G. glandulifera ( russian liq.) G. violacea ( persian liq.) C HEMICAL CONSTITUENT : Triterpenoid saponins: Glycyrrhizin, present in the form of calcium and potassium salts, 2-15% Also known as Glycyrrhizic acid. Flavonoid rich fractions include liquirtin, isoliquertin, liquiritigenin and rhamnoliquirilin

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Glycyrrhetinic acid (18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid, GA), 0.5-0.9% Bitter principle: glycymarin Steroid hormones: includes oestrogenic substances Resinous oil 15% Progesterone-related substances GLYC Glycyrrhizin YRRHIZIN

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PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION Anti-inflammatory and Anti-Allergic Activity glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, which is responsible for converting cortisol, the active form into its inactive metabolites which cause significantly increases the levels of cortisol and also stimulation of the glucocorticoid receptors & action of hydrocortisone , all action lead to antiinflammatory,anti-allergic and anti-arthritic effects, Antiviral and Anti-microbial Activity In vivo studies have found that it induces interferon production and is able to promote the activity of key immune cells. (Chopra et al 2000, Mills et al 2000) Three coumarin derivatives, glycyrol, glycyrin and glycycoumarin also showed antibacterial activity. (Tanaka et al 2001)


Spasmolytic Activity Liquiritin present in the roots of Glycyrrhiza is inactive as an anti-spasmodic. However when hydrolysed by heat and converted to isoliquiritigenin, it was shown to exhibit strong spasmolytic activity. (Mills et al 2000) Anti-pyretic Activity Glycyrrhiza’s anti-pyretic activity is due to glycyrrhetinic acid’s aspirin-like effects. Expectorant Activity work as effectively as codeine in the throat, decreasing irritations, able to stimulate gastric mucus secretion Other uses Hepatoprotective Nutritive Oestrogenic Emollient Diuretic Mild laxative


ST. JOHN’S WORT Syn :hypericum, goat weed It consist of dried aerial part of Hypericum perforatum Fam.-Hypericaceae It is distributed in western Himalaya CHEMICAL CONSTITUENT Napthodianthrone :- hypericin, pseudohypericin Hyperoside, Flavanoids : -quercetin, kampeferol, & biapigenin Biflavanoids :-amentoflavone It also contain procyanidine(8%) rutin & hyperin

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PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION:- Anxiety Depression Inflammation of the skin Blunt Injuries Wounds and Burns Recurrent Ear infection Vitiligo Being tested for AIDS It inhibited type A and type B monoamine oxidase & used in treatment of depression because they help to curb an enzyme that breaks down monoamine, which is a precursor of norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter. Since hypericin was shown this activity. St. John's wort oil is used for bruises, is anti-inflammatory, and is often used by herbalists to help speed healing of wounds and sores .reported antiviral activity against HIV & hepatitis-c virus

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DOSAGE Dry herb (in capsules or tablets): The usual dose for mild depression and mood disorders is 300 to 500 mg (standardized to 0.3% hypericin extract), three times per day, with meals. Liquid extract (1:1): 40 to 60 drops, two times per day. Tea: Pour one cup of boiling water over 1 to 2 tsp of dried St. John’s wort and steep for 10 minutes. Drink up to 2 cups per day for four to six weeks. Oil or cream : To treat inflammation, as in wounds, burns or hemorrhoids, an oil-based preparation of St. John’s wort can be applied topically

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Turmeric Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae Composition Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 5% curcumin , a polyphenol . It is the active substance of turmeric, and it is also known as C.I. 75300, or Natural Yellow 3. The systematic chemical name is (1 E ,6 E )-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione.

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Uses In Ayurvedic practices, turmeric has many medicinal properties and many in South Asia use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts, burns and bruises . It is also used as an antibacterial agent. Turmeric is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease , cancer , arthritis, and other clinical disorders. In the latter half of the 20th century, curcumin was identified as responsible for most of the biological effects of turmeric. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal , research activity into curcumin and turmeric is increasing, with supplement sales increased 35% from 2004. The U.S. National Institutes of Health currently has registered 19 clinical trials underway to study use of dietary turmeric and curcumin for a variety of clinical disorders (dated February 2010).

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Allium cepa Linn. Family:- Liliaceae; English :- Onion. Ayurvedic:- Palaandu, Durgandh. Unani:- Piyaaz. Action:-- Antibiotic, antibacterial, antisclerotic, anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, expectorant,carminative,antispasmodic diuretic, hypotensive,antidiabetic.

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Key application:-- For the prevention of atherosclerosis ( German Commission E) and age-dependent changes in the blood vessels, and loss of appetite ( WHO). Onion bulbs contain a volatile oil with sulphurous constituents, including allylpropyldisulphide; sulphur containing compounds, including allicin, alliin; flavonoids; phenolic acids and sterols. Hypoglycaemic activity of the onion is attributed to the allylpropyldisulphide and allicin. Diphenylamine, isolated from mature bulbs, also exhibits potent antihyperglycaemic activity. Alliin and allicin have an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. Antibiotic activity is due mainly to allicin. Regular use of onion (50 g/day) reduces insulin requirement of a diabetic patient from 40 to 20 units a day.

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Valeriana officinalis Linn. Family:-- Valerianaceae. Constituents of the root include valtrates,didrovaltrates and isovalerates.Other constituents include 0.4–1.4% monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, caffeic, gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) and chlorogenic acids, beta-sitosterol, methyl, 2-pyrrolketone, choline, tannins, gums alkaloids and resin. ( Expanded Commission E Monographs.) The volatile oil (0.5–2%) contains bornyl acetate and bornyl isovalerate as the principal components. Other constituents include beta-caryophyllene, valeranone, valerenal, valerenic acid and other sesquiterpenoids and monoterpenes.

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Action:-- Tranquillizer, hypnotic, a natural relaxant to higher nerve centres. Used for nervous tension, sleeplessness, restlessness, palpitation, tension, headache, migraine, menstrual pain, intestinal cramps, bronchial spasm. Key application:-- Internally for restlessness and sleeping disorders based on nervous conditions ( German Commission E).



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Government Regulations For decades, FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe and wholesome and that their labeling was truthful and not misleading. Government Regulations – NLEA 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (NLEA) defines how food is labeled, including nutrition labeling, in accordance with definitions established by FDA, and providing for the use of claims about the relationship between nutrients and diseases or health-related conditions

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Government Regulation –DSHEA 1994 In 1994 DSHEA was passed as an amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938) to establish standards with respect to dietary supplements. Health Claims for Food FDA initially authorized seven health claims in 1993 as part of NLEA Since 1993, FDA has authorized four more, last was in October 1999

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Health Claims Calcium and osteoporosis Sodium and hypertension (high blood pressure) Dietary fat and cancer Dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease 5. Fruits and vegetables and cancer 6. Folate and neural tube birth defects 7. Dietary sugar alcohol and dental caries (cavities)

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8.Fiber-containing grain products, fruits, and vegetables and cancer 9.Fruits, vegetables, and grain products that contain fiber, particularly soluble fiber, and risk of coronary heart disease 10.Dietary soluble fiber, such as that found in whole oats and psyllium seed husk, and coronary heart disease 11.Soy protein and coronary heart disease

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Food Safety And Standard Act 2006 The Food Safety and Standard Act 2006 aims to establish a single reference point for all matters relating to Food Safety and Standards, by moving from multi-level, multi-departmental control to a single line of command. It incorporates the salient provisions of the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act 1954 and is based on international legislations, Instrumentalities and Codex Alimentarius Commission. 7 The salient features of this Act are as follows: The Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 consolidates the eight laws governing the food sector and establishes the Food Safety and Standards Authority (FSSA) to regulate the sector and other allied committees. FSSA will be aided by several scientific panels and a Central Advisory Committee to lay down standards for food safety. These standards will include specifications for ingredients, contaminants, pesticide residue, Biological hazards, labels and others.

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Everyone in the food sector is required to get a license or a registration that would be issued by local authorities. The law will be enforced through State Commissioners of Food Safety and local level officials. The Act provides for a graded penalty structure where the punishment depends on the severity of the violation. The responsibility of framing and regulating standards for nutraceuticals is to rest with the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSAI) as outlined in the Food Safety Act, 2006. The authority will be in charge of categories like functional foods, nutraceuticals, dietetic products and other similar products.

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Benefits of the Regulation Allows greater legal security and more predicable environment Supports innovation (food and drink products) Prevents unfair competition from manufactures using false or misleading claims If positive claims cannot be made, the regulation does not oblige anyone to make negative claims about the product

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Nutraceutical market in India to cross Rs9,500 crore New Delhi: India’s nutritional supplement market is expected to more than double in the next four years at over Rs9,500 crore, a study said. According to a joint study by industry body Ficci and consultancy firm Ernst and Young, the growth in the nutraceutical products business will be fuelled mainly because of the changing lifestyle and increasing awareness about nutritional supplements. Global Nutraceuticals Market to Cross US$187 Billion By 2010, According to a New Report by Global Industry Analysts, Inc.

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List of marketed nutraceutical products……. PRODUCT CATEGORY CONTENTS MANUFACTURER Coral calcium Calcium Supplement Calcium and trace minerals Nature,s answer, Hauppauge, ,USA Weight smart Nutritional supplement Vitamins and trace elements Bayer corporation,USA Omega woman Immune supplement Antioxidants,Vitamins,and phytochemicals (eg.Lycopene etc) Wassen , Surrey, U K Appetite intercept Appetite supplement Caffeine, tyrosine,and phenylalanine Natrol, Chatsworth USA

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PRODUCT CATEGORY CONTENTS MANUFACTURER Rox Energy drink Taurine, Caffeine, and glucuronolactone Rox America, Spartanburg, SA, USA Mushroom optimizer Immune supplement Mushrooms, polysaccharides,and folic acid Jarrowformulas,Los Angeles, USA Biovinca Neurotonic Vinpocetine Cyvex nutrition, USA Proplus Nutritional supplement Soy proteins Campbell soup company,Camden , NJ,USA

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PRODUCT CATEGORY CONTENTS MANUFACTURER Proteinex Protein Supplement Predigested proteins, Vitamins, minerals and carbohydrates Pfizer Ltd. Mumbai India Calcirol D-3 Calcium Supplement Calcium and Vitamins, Cadilla healthcare limited, Ahmedabad,INDIA GRD Nutritional supplement Proteins, Vitamins, minerals and carbohydrates Zydus cadila limited, Ahmedabad,INDIA


CONCLUSION Nutraceuticals are present in most of the food ingredients with varying concentration . Concentration, time and duration of supply of nutraceuticals influence human health. Manipulating the foods, the concentration of active ingredients can be increased. Diet rich in nutraceuticals along with regular exercise, stress reduction and maintenance of healthy body weight will maximise health and reduce disease risk.

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References Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, September 2008; 7 (3): 1089-1099© Pharmacotherapy Group,Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin,Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. Web Pages: NIH: http ://dietary- / FDA: International Food Information Council Foundation (IFIC): Functional Foods for Health (FFH): Consumer lab: Institute for Nutraceutical Advancement Trease&Evan’s pharmacognosy WB.saunders & co. London

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Dietary Supplements T H I R D E D I T I O N ...................Pamela Mason Herbal Medicines THIRD EDITION ..................................Joanne Barnes, Linda A Anderson, J David Phillipson Indian Medicinal Plants........ C.P. Khare (Ed.) Nutraceuticals A guide for healthcare professionals Second edition ......... Brian Lockwood

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