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HISTORY PROJECT BY RALSTON CRASTA 9 - I:

HISTORY PROJECT BY RALSTON CRASTA 9 - I

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League of Nations and its failure The League of Nations (LON) was an intergovernmental organisation founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War , and was the precursor to the United Nations . The League was the first permanent international security organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members. The League's primary goals, as stated in its Covenant , included preventing war through collective security , disarmament , and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration . Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, trafficking in persons and drugs , arms trade , global health , prisoners of war , and protection of minorities in Europe

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The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift in thought from the preceding hundred years. The League lacked its own armed force and so depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions, keep to economic sanctions which the League ordered, or provide an army, when needed, for the League to use. However, they were often reluctant to do so. Sanctions could also hurt the League members, so they were reluctant to comply with them. When, during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War , the League accused Italian soldiers of targeting Red Cross medical tents, Benito Mussolini responded that "the League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out.

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After a number of notable successes and some early failures in the 1920s, the League ultimately proved incapable of preventing aggression by the Axis powers in the 1930s. In May 1933, Franz Bernheim , a Jew , complained that his rights as a minority were being violated by the German administration of Upper Silesia , which induced the Germans to defer enforcement of the anti-Jewish laws in the region for several years until the relevant treaty expired in 1937, whereupon they simply refused to renew the League's authority further and renewed anti-Jewish persecution. Hitler claimed these clauses violated Germany's sovereignty . Germany withdrew from the League, soon to be followed by many other aggressive powers.

Treaty of Versailles:

Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I . It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers . It was signed on June 28, 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand . The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties. Although the armistice signed on November 11, 1918 ended the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on October 21, 1919, and was printed in The League of Nations Treaty Series .

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Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war (along with Austria and Hungary, according to the Treaty of Saint- Germain -en- Laye and the Treaty of Trianon ) and, under the terms of articles 231–248 (later known as the War Guilt clauses), to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay heavy reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. The total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion Marks (then $31.4 billion, £6.6 billion) in 1921 which is roughly equivalent to US $ 442 billion and UK £ 217 billion in 2011, a sum that many economists at the time, notably John Maynard Keynes , deemed to be excessive and counterproductive and would have taken Germany until 1988 to pay. The final payments ended up being made on October 4, 2010, the 20th anniversary of German reunification , and some 92 years after the end of the war for which they were exacted. The Treaty was undermined by subsequent events starting as early as 1932 and was widely flouted by the mid-1930s

Rise of Nazism and Hitler!! Nazism.. :

Rise of Nazism and Hitler!! Nazism.. Nazism ( Nationalsozialismus , National Socialism; alternatively spelled Nazism [ ; historically also Hitlerism, Hitlerisms ) was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany . It is a unique variety of fascism that incorporates biological racism and antisemitism . Nazism was founded out of elements of the far-right and racist German völkisch nationalist movement and the violent anti-communist Freikorps paramilitary culture that fought against the uprisings of communist revolutionaries in post- World War I Germany . The ideology was developed by Anton Drexler as a means to draw workers away from communism and into völkisch nationalism. [10] Initially Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business , anti-bourgeois , and anti-capitalist rhetoric, though such aspects were later downplayed in the 1930s to gain the support from industrial owners for the Nazis, focus was shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes. Nazism presented itself as politically syncretic , incorporating policies, tactics and philosophies from right- and left-wing ideologies, though a majority of scholars identify it as a far right form of politics.

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Nazism believed in the supremacy of an Aryan master race over all other races. Nazis viewed the progress of humanity as depending on the Aryans and believed that it could maintain its dominance only if it retained its purity and instinct for self-preservation. They claimed that Jews were the greatest threat to the Aryan race. They considered Jews a parasitic race that attached itself to various ideologies and movements to secure its self-preservation, such as: capitalism , democracy , the Enlightenment , industrialization , liberalism , Marxism , parliamentary politics , and trade unionism . To maintain the purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate or impose exclusionary segregation upon "degenerate" and "asocial" groups that included: Jews, homosexuals , Romani , blacks , the physically and mentally handicapped , Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents.

HITLER:

HITLER Hitler's rise to power began in Germany (at least formally) in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party that was known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (abbreviated as DAP, and later commonly referred to as the Nazi Party ). This political party was formed and developed during the post- World War I era. It was anti-Marxist and was opposed to the democratic post-war government of the Weimar Republic and the Treaty of Versailles ; and it advocated extreme nationalism and Pan- Germanism as well as virulent anti-Semitism . Hitler's "rise" can be considered to have ended in March 1933, after the Reichstag adopted the Enabling Act of 1933 in that month; President Paul von Hindenburg had already appointed Hitler as Chancellor on January 30, 1933 after a series of parliamentary elections and associated backstairs intrigues. The Enabling Act—when used ruthlessly and with authority—virtually assured that Hitler could thereafter constitutionally exercise dictatorial power without legal objection.

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Hitler rose to a place of prominence in the early years of the party. Being one of the best speakers of the party, he told the other members of the party to either make him leader of the party, or, he would never return. He was aided in part by his willingness to use violence in advancing his political objectives and to recruit party members who were willing to do the same. The Beer Hall putsch in 1923 and the later release of his book Mein Kamp (usually translated as My Struggle ) introduced Hitler to a wider audience. In the mid-1920s, the party engaged in electoral battles in which Hitler participated as a speaker and organizer, as well as in street battles and violence between the Rotfrontkämpferbund and the Nazi's Sturmabteilung (SA). Through the late 1920s and early 1930s, the Nazis gathered enough electoral support to become the largest political party in the Reichstag , and Hitler's blend of political acuity, deceptiveness and cunning converted the party's non- majority but plurality status into effective governing power in the ailing Weimar Republic of 1933.

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ADOLF HITLER

Policy of appeasement :

Policy of appeasement The term appeasement is commonly understood to refer to a diplomatic policy aimed at avoiding war by making concessions to another power. It has been described as "...the policy of settling international quarrels by admitting and satisfying grievances through rational negotiation and compromise, thereby avoiding the resort to an armed conflict which would be expensive, bloody, and possibly dangerous." It was used by European democracies in the 1930s who wished to avoid war with the dictatorships of Germany and Italy, bearing in mind the horrors of the First World War . The term is most often applied to the foreign policy of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain towards Nazi Germany between 1937 and 1939. His policies of avoiding war with Germany have been the subject of intense debate for seventy years among academics, politicians and diplomats.

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The historian's assessment of Chamberlain has ranged from condemnation for allowing Hitler to grow too strong, to the judgment that he had no alternative and acted in Britain's best interests. At the time, these concessions were widely seen as positive, and the Munich Pact among Germany, Great Britain, France and Italy prompted Chamberlain to announce that he had secured " peace for our time ". The word "appeasement" has been used as a synonym for weakness and even cowardice since the 1930s .

THE END…….:

THE END……. wazzzzaa

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