Slide 1: By Jing R. Bautista (firstname.lastname@example.org) Introduction : Introduction Cell obey the laws of Cells are living things, made up of chemical compounds Atoms, Molecules and Organizations : Atoms, Molecules and Organizations - the smallest particle an element that can exist on its own Interaction among atoms (how they bond to form molecules)- the basis of biological structure and function. Slide 4: Z- protons A- protons+neutrons Slide 5: Electron Shell The specific energy level Slide 6: Stable: 2 electrons- hydrogen 8 electrons- carbon/chlorine Slide 7: - substance that are made just one kind of atom that cannot be broken to other substances by chemical reaction. Compound -two or more elements combined in a fix ratio Chemical Bonds : Chemical Bonds Transferring Sharing 2
S Slide 9: Ionic bonds Slide 11: Van der Waals Water and the Fitness of the Environment : Water and the Fitness of the Environment > about 60-90% of all living organisms. Slide 13: 1. Excellent solvent > All ions and salts essential for life are soluble in water > Hydrolysis- splitting of a compound into smaller pieces by the addition of water Slide 14: 2. High specific heat capacity > Vital role in moderating effects of changing environmental temperature and a great protection for all life Slide 15: 3. Unique heat of vaporization > For terrestrial animals to get rid of excess heat by the cooling effect produced by the evaporation of water Slide 16: 4. Unique density behavior Important property that helps in maintaining life
Highest density at 40C while it’s a liquid and less dense with further cooling Slide 17: 5. High surface tension important property in maintaining protoplasmic form and movement that creates a unique ecological niche for insect that glide and skate on the water surface. Slide 18: 6. Low viscosity Favors the movement of blood through minute capillary and of cytoplasm inside cellular boundaries BIOMOLECULES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS : BIOMOLECULES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS basic components of protoplasmic structures of nucleic acids and nucleotides and serves as immediate source of chemical energy (glucose) in living systems.
starch, cellulose, and polymers of sugars 1. Monosaccharides- (glucose, galactose, fructose; GGF) : 1. Monosaccharides- (glucose, galactose, fructose; GGF) 2. Disaccharides : 2. Disaccharides Slide 24: Maltose: Sucrose: Lactose: + Fructose 3.Polysaccharides : 3.Polysaccharides long chains of glucose linked together referred to as polymer.
Functions are: storage structural Cell identification tags Examples: : Examples: Starch- stored sugars in plant cells Glycogen- consists entirely of glucose, stored in animals Slide 28: Mannan- mannose and makes up the cell walls of various microorganisms Slide 29: Cellulose- major components of cell walls of higher plants Slide 30: Chitin- major component of arthropods exoskeleton 2. Lipids : 2. Lipids structurally diverse group
determinate (precise size)
very much smaller than the indeterminate polysaccharides Functions : : Functions : Repel water and therefore can be used substances from their watery surroundings.
They perform structural and storage functions. The major types are: : The major types are: Fatty acids
Neural fats (triglycerides)
Hormones 3. Proteins : 3. Proteins the most complex macromolecules and are made of amino acids Functions: : Functions: Structural roles (keratin and collagen),
enzymatic roles (pepsin),
and some rare proteins are even used for food storage (gluten) Structure: : Structure: Primary structure
- defines the structure of protein. Amino acid monomers are connected to each other in a linear array of amino acids.
- describes the ways in which the chain of amino acids can fold in space (keratin).
- interactions between R-groups (ionic interactions between charged residues, hydrophobic interactions between non-polar groups, hydrogen bond interactions and other interactions) cause the protein to bend in space (myoglobin).
- interaction of distinct polypeptide chains causing poplypeptides to form aggregates (hemoglobin and most enzymes) 4. Nucleic acids : 4. Nucleic acids Functions:
1. Information storehouses
2. Carriers of genetic information (genes) of the cell Two forms : Two forms 1. RNA (ribonucleic acid)- impermanent form of that same information and serves as a messenger of information in genes used by the cell.
2. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)- information storage structure; containing the stable form of genetic information passed from one generation to another. COMPARISON OF DNA AND RNA : COMPARISON OF DNA AND RNA DNA RNA Base, phosphate, deoxyribose Base, phosphate, ribose Permanent work of genetic information Impermanent form of nucleic acid The DNA molecule acts as the template for synthesis of an RNA copy Several types each with different role in protein synthesis Purines: Adenine, Guanine Pyrimidines: Thymine, Cytosine Pyrimidines: Uracil, Cytosine Purines: Adenine, Guanine Assignment: 1 whole sheet yellow paper : Assignment: 1 whole sheet yellow paper What are the similarities and differences of Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell?
What are the similarities and differences of Animal cell and Plant cell?
What are the different cellular or biological transport that is happening within the cell?