Climate Change: Recent Scientific Findings

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Charts of recent scientific findings on climate change. Public Domain PowerPoint - can be copied and updated for lectures on climate change (non-commercial and commercial). Updated May 2014.

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Climate Change : 

Climate Change Charts of Recent Scientific Findings on Climate Change Updated May 2014 This PowerPoint Presentation is in the Public Domain

IPCC Fifth Assessment Report 2013: 

IPCC Fifth Assessment Report 2013 “ Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and since the 1950s, many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, sea level has risen, and the concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased .” “It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century.”

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In the Third U.S. National Climate Assessment Report Ten Indicators of a Warming World

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Global Surface Temperatures By the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

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Global Surface Mean Temp Anomalies By the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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Greenhouse Gas Concentrations for 2,000 Years By U.S. Global Climate Research Program

IPCC Fifth Assessment Report 2013: 

IPCC Fifth Assessment Report 2013 “ The atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide have increased to levels unprecedented in at least the last 800,000 years . Carbon dioxide concentrations have increased by 40% since pre-industrial times, primarily from fossil fuel emissions and secondarily from net land use change emissions. The ocean has absorbed about 30% of the emitted anthropogenic carbon dioxide, causing ocean acidification.”

Total Annual GHG Emissions by Type by the U.S. National Climate Assessment Report: 

Total Annual GHG Emissions by Type by the U.S. National Climate Assessment Report F-Gases = Fluorinated Gases; N 2 0 = Nitrous Oxide; CH 4 = Methane; C0 2 FOLU = Carbon Dioxide from Land Use

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Change in CO 2 Levels Over 650,000 Years By Down to Earth Climate Science based on NOAA charts

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Carbon Dioxide Concentrations By the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

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Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Global Annual Average Temperatures By the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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by Markus Huber and Reto Knutti Separating Human and Natural Influences on Climate

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Energy from the Sun has not Increased By the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration The amount of solar energy received at the top of our atmosphere has followed its natural 11-year cycle of small ups and downs, but with no net increase. Over the same period, global temperature has risen markedly. This indicates that it is extremely unlikely that solar influence has been a significant driver of global temperature change over several decades.

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The Carbon Bathtub By National Geographic

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The Carbon Bathtub By The Environmental Protection Agency

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Shifting Distribution of Summer Temperature Anomalies (Northern Hemisphere) By NASA

Global Land and Ocean Temperature Anomalies By the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: 

Global Land and Ocean Temperature Anomalies By the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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Land & Ocean Temperature Anomalies 2014 By the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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Observed Change in Global Average Temperature By the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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Projected Changes in Global Average Annual Temperature By the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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Projected Changes in Global Average Annual Precipitation By the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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Some of the Observed Changes in Climate Extremes IPCC Fifth Assessment Report 2013 Trends in the frequency (or intensity) of various climate extremes (arrow direction denotes the sign of the change) since the middle of the 20th century (except for North Atlantic storms where the period covered is from the 1970s).

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Land Ice Levels in Antarctica and Greenland By the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

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Arctic Sea Ice Levels By the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Arctic Sea Ice Decline by NASA and NRDC: 

Arctic Sea Ice Decline by NASA and NRDC

Total Glacier Ice Decline By the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: 

Total Glacier Ice Decline By the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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Muir Glacier 1941 and 2004 By the U.S. Geological Survey

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Sea Level Rise By the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

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Global Upper Ocean Heat is Rising Global Climate Change Indicators By the NOAA While ocean heat content varies significantly from place to place and from year-to-year (as a result of changing ocean currents and natural variability), there is a strong trend during the period of reliable measurements. Increasing heat content in the ocean is also consistent with sea level rise, which is occurring mostly as a result of thermal expansion of the ocean water as it warms.

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Past and Projected Changes in Global Sea Level By the National Aeronautics and Space Administration The orange line shows currently projected sea level rise by 2100. The large range primarily reflects uncertainty about how ice sheets will respond to the warming ocean and atmosphere, and to changing winds and currents.

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Projected Sea Level Rise in New York City By Center for Climate Systems Research (CCSR) Combined observed (black line) and projected sea level rise for two future sea level rise scenarios. Projected global climate model (GCM) changes through time are joined to the observed historical data. Dark blue shows the range of projections for the NPCC rapid ice-melt scenario while light blue shows the range of projections for the GCM-based sea level rise approach. The three thick lines (green, red, and blue) within each sea level rise scenario show the average for each emissions scenario across 7 GCMs. A ten-year filter has been applied to the observed data and modeled output. (2011)

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Projected Sea Level Rise Near New Orleans By United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) In the Gulf Coast, 2,400 miles of major roadway could be permanently flooded by sea level rise in the next 50 to 100 years. This map shows roadways at risk under relative sea level rise of about four feet—within the range of end-of-century projections for this region (under medium- and high-emissions scenarios). In total, 24% of interstate highway miles and 28% of secondary road miles in the Gulf Coast region are at elevations below 4 feet. Source: USGCRP (2009)

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Impact of 3.2 and 4.9 Feet Sea Level Rise on Bangladesh Dacca University; IPCC

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Ocean Acidification: Pacific Ocean CO 2 and pH Mauna Loa data: Dr. Pieter Tans, NOAA/ESRL; HOTS/Aloha data: Dr. David Karl, University of Hawaii. As oceans continue to absorb ever-increasing amounts of atmospheric CO2, scientists are concerned that the chemistry of the ocean will change. A change in ocean chemistry could have negative consequences for marine organisms, marine food webs and entire ecosystems. Scientists are particularly concerned about the pH chemistry of ocean water. A change in pH can make substances more acidic or more basic (or alkaline). Many organisms, including ourselves, cannot tolerate changes in pH. For example, human blood has a narrow pH range of 7.35 - 7.45. If our blood pH were to change even slightly, our health could be negatively impacted. Marine organisms are no different. Since the industrial revolution, ocean acidity has increased by 30%.

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Shells Dissolve in Acidified Ocean Water

IPCC Fifth Assessment Report 2013 Key Risks Created by Climate Change: 

Risk of death, injury, ill-health, or disrupted livelihoods in low-lying coastal zones and small island developing states and other small islands, due to storm surges, coastal flooding, and sea-level rise. Risk of severe ill-health and disrupted livelihoods for large urban populations due to inland flooding in some regions. Systemic risks due to extreme weather events leading to breakdown of infrastructure networks and critical services such as electricity, water supply, and health and emergency services. Risk of mortality and morbidity during periods of extreme heat, particularly for vulnerable urban populations and those working outdoors in urban or rural areas. Risk of food insecurity and the breakdown of food systems linked to warming, drought, flooding, and precipitation variability and extremes, particularly for poorer populations in urban and rural settings. IPCC Fifth Assessment Report 2013 Key Risks Created by Climate Change

IPCC Fifth Assessment Report 2013 Key Risks Created by Climate Change (continued): 

Risk of loss of rural livelihoods and income due to insufficient access to drinking and irrigation water and reduced agricultural productivity, particularly for farmers and pastoralists with minimal capital in semi-arid regions. Risk of loss of marine and coastal ecosystems, biodiversity, and the ecosystem goods , functions , and services they provide for coastal livelihoods, especially for fishing communities in the tropics and the Arctic. Risk of loss of terrestrial and inland water ecosystems, biodiversity, and the ecosystem goods , functions, and services they provide for livelihoods. Many key risks constitute particular challenges for the least developed countries and vulnerable communities , given their limited ability to cope. IPCC Fifth Assessment Report 2013 Key Risks Created by Climate Change (continued)

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CO 2 Emissions by Country Source: Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research

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400,000 Hiroshima Atomic Bombs Per Day By the NASA Climate Scientist James Hansen “[The current increase in global warming is] equivalent to exploding 400,000 Hiroshima atomic bombs per day 365 days per year. That’s how much extra energy Earth is gaining each day.” (James Hansen, NASA Climate Scientist)

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Only 0.17 Percent of Peer-Reviewed Papers Reject Global Warming By James Lawrence Powell (jamespowell.org) The chart comes from James Lawrence Powell, a geologist, science-writer, and former professor. Powell reviewed 13,950 peer-reviewed scientific articles published between January 1991 and November 9, 2012 that mentioned "global warming" or "global climate change."

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“Imagine a giant asteroid on a direct collision course with Earth. That is the equivalent of what we face now [with climate change], yet we dither.” (James Hansen, NASA Climate Scientist)