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Psesentation on Learning and Human Resource Development by Gladys C. Real , EdD student


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Learning and HRD gladys c. real EdD student :

Learning and HRD gladys c. real EdD student

Quiz: Agree or disagree:

Quiz: Agree or disagree 1 . For learning to take place, the most important variable to consider is whether the individual learner has sufficient ability to learn what is being taught. 2. In general, people learn best and remember the most when they can spread out the time spent learning new material. 3. Overlearning something is generally a waste of time and should be avoided. 4. If training has been effective, then it really doesn’t matter whether there is support in the work environment or not. 5. Trainers should always seek to match the type of training delivery methods to the characteristics of the individuals being trained.


Activity 1. Do the learning process by answering the questions presented for 10 min. 2. Get your own bondpaper as provided and make your own concept map. Post your output on the wall. 3. Then, be ready to present to the group as you wish.



Definition of Learning:

Definition of Learning Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior, cognition, or affect that occurs as a result of one’s interaction with the environment.


Learning Focus is upon change Change must be long-lasting The focus of learning can be cognitive, behavioral, or affective Results from the individual’s interaction with the learning environment

Learning Outcomes:

Learning Outcomes Outcomes can be: Cognitive (Knowledge) Psychomotor (Skill- or behavior-based) Affective (Attitude)

Basic Learning Principles:

Basic Learning Principles Contiguity – t hings taught together become associated with each other Law of Effect – a behavior followed by pleasurable experience is likely to be repeated Practice – r epetition increases association and knowledge

Limitations in the Foregoing:

Limitations in the Foregoing Based on strictly controlled tests (“lab studies”) Practice doesn’t always make perfect

Improved Training Design:

Improved Training Design 1.Task Analysis —Any task can be analyzed into a set of distinct component tasks. 2. Component Task Achievement —Each component task must be fully achieved before the entire task may be performed correctly. 3. Task Sequencing —The learning situation should be arranged so that each of the component tasks is learned in the appropriate order before the total task is attempted.

Task Analysis:

Task Analysis Break each task down into a series of distinct component tasks Keep breaking tasks down to the simplest level possible Remember “K.I.S.S.”

Component Task Achievement:

Component Task Achievement Each task must be completed fully before the entire task may be performed correctly You have to specify what is to be done, under what conditions, and how it is to be evaluated

Task Sequencing:

Task Sequencing Each component task should be arranged in the proper sequence Some are serial tasks Some can be done in parallel

Instructional Psychology:

Instructional Psychology What must be done before learning can take place Describe the learning goal to be achieved Analyze the initial state of the learner Identify the conditions allowing the learner to gain competence Assess and monitor the learning process

Maximizing Learning (Training):

Maximizing Learning (Training) Trainee Characteristics Training Design Transfer of Training

Trainee Characteristics:

Trainee Characteristics Trainability – Motivation Ability Perception of the work environment Personality and attitudes

Training Design Issues:

Training Design Issues Conditions of practice Retention of what is learned

Conditions of Practice:

Conditions of Practice Active practice Spaced versus massed practice Whole versus part learning Overlearning Knowledge of results (feedback) Task sequencing

Retention of What is Learned:

Retention of What is Learned Meaningfulness of the material Degree of original learning Interference Knowledge before training Changes after training

Transfer of Training:

Transfer of Training Does training make it to the job? Positive transfer – Job performance improves after training Zero transfer – No measurable changes Negative transfer – Performance becomes worse after training

Other Types of Transfer:

Other Types of Transfer Near Transfer Ability to directly apply back to the job Far Transfer Expanding upon or using in new and creative ways

Baldwin & Ford’s Transfer of Training Model:

Baldwin & Ford’s Transfer of Training Model

Maximizing Transfer:

Maximizing Transfer Identical elements Physical fidelity Psychological fidelity

Identical Elements:

Identical Elements The closer the training is to the job, the easier it is to achieve transfer Direct relationship to the job Example: Customer service and angry customers Role playing, business games, etc.

Physical Fidelity:

Physical Fidelity Same physically Same procedurally Example: Flight and submarine simulators

Psychological Fidelity:

Psychological Fidelity Trainee experiences same stresses and conditions as he/she is being trained for Example: MS Flight Simulator

General Principles of transfer from Learning:

General Principles of transfer from Learning 1.Stimulus Variability – transfer can be enhanced when training contains variety of stimulus.

2.Support in Work Environment:

2.Support in Work Environment Transfer of training into workplace is supported A continuous learning environment Supervisors support and help develop training Training leads to promotion/better pay Trainee has opportunity to perform

3.Opportunity to perform:

3.Opportunity to perform . what has been learned back on the job is an impt. element of the work env. The opportunity to perform as the extend to which a trainee is provided work relevant to task for which he is trained. Influence both by the ind. and the org.

Individual Differences:

Individual Differences Rate of Progress Learning charts/curves Chart learning proficiency against time Measure proficiency with standardized tests Charts show plateaus in learning as well as progress

Some Learning Curves:

Some Learning Curves

Cognitive Resource Allocation Theory (How Brain is Used):

Cognitive Resource Allocation Theory (How Brain is Used) How well you pay attention determines how much you learn. How well you pay attention determines how well you perform. The greater your intelligence, the more you pay attention. If you’re motivated, you pay attention.

Three Phases of Learning a Skill:

Three Phases of Learning a Skill Declarative knowledge Forming a mental picture of the task Knowledge compilation Integrating knowledge and motor skills Procedural knowledge Ability to perform task automatically, paying little attention to it

Andragogy (M. Knowles):

Andragogy (M. Knowles) Adults are self-directed Adults already have knowledge and experience Adults are ready to learn relevant tasks Adults are motivated to learn Adults expect to apply learning immediately

Adult Learner:

Adult Learner

How to Assess Trainee Differences 1:

How to Assess Trainee Differences 1 Instrumentality Does trainee think training is applicable? Skepticism Degree trainee questions and demands facts. Resistance to Change How well is change accepted?

How to Assess Trainee Differences 2:

How to Assess Trainee Differences 2 Attention Span How long can trainee focus on the lesson? Expectation Level What does trainee expect from the trainer/training? Dominant Needs What drives/motivates the trainee?

How to Assess Trainee Differences – 3:

How to Assess Trainee Differences – 3 Absorption Level How fast is new information accepted? Topical Interest How interested is trainee in topic? Self-Confidence Degree of independence and self-regard Locus of Control Can trainee implement training on job?


Gerontology Working with older people Older people can and do develop Older people should not be excluded from training Training must be geared for adults, not children Organizations must reward training Look at overall career patterns

Learning Styles:

Learning Styles Lots of research in this area Many different tests are available to measure: Learning ability Individual learning preferences It’s NOT all psychobabble!

Learning style:

Learning style

Types of Learners:

Types of Learners

Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory:

Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory Among most popular tests used Proposes four modes of learning: Concrete Experience (CE) Abstract Conceptualization (AC) Reflective Observation (RO) Active Experimentation (AE)

Kolb’s Learning Styles:

Kolb’s Learning Styles Convergent Thinking and Doing Divergent Feeling and Watching Assimilation Thinking and Watching Accommodative Feeling and Doing

Kolb’s Learning Styles:

Kolb’s Learning Styles CE Accommodative Divergent AE RO Convergent Assimilation AC

Five Learning Strategies:

Five Learning Strategies Rehearsal strategies Elaboration strategies Organizational strategies Comprehension monitoring strategies Affective strategies

Another Strategy:

Another Strategy Identify assumptions Test assumption validity Generate and test alternatives Decrease likelihood of errors

Perceptual Preferences 1 :

Perceptual Preferences 1 Print Reading and writing Visual Graphs, charts, pictures Aural Listening Interactive Discussing, asking questions

Perceptual Preferences – 2:

Perceptual Preferences – 2 Tactile/manipulative Hands-on, touching Kinesthetic/psychomotor Role playing, physical activity Olfactory Smell, taste

Actual Preferences:

Actual Preferences Adults – generally prefer visual Females – all sources Males – selected sources Young Adults – interactive, visual CONCLUSION: Tailor your method to your audience.

Expert Performance:

Expert Performance Definition: Consistently superior performance on a specified set of representative tasks for a domain

Gagne’s Theory of Instruction:

Gagne’s Theory of Instruction Verbal information Intellectual skills Cognitive strategies Motor skills Attitudes ALL ARE LEARNED IN DIFFERENT WAYS!

Instructional Events:

Instructional Events Gain attention. State the learning objective. Stimulate recall of earlier lessons. Present new material. Provide learning guidance. Have student perform. Provide feedback. Assess performance. Enhance retention and training transfer.

What is the learning in E-learning:

What is the learning in E-learning Advance in technology is changing the field of Human Resource Development Internet and computer-assisted Instructions (CAI)


Summary Without learning, there would be no field of human resource development To increase learning, we must consider: Trainee characteristics/individual differences Training design issues Retention and transfer of training issues

Answers for the introductory questions:

Answers for the introductory questions 1.False . Remember, trainability is a function of motivation, ability, and perceptions of the work environment. Ability is certainly important, but without a sufficient level of motivation and support from the work environment, ability by itself is not enough (p. 81).   2. True! This is the idea behind spaced practice sessions (p. 85). For most types of learning, spaced practice results in superior retention of the material to be learned than does massed practice. Thought question: if this is true, why do organizations so often violate this in their actual training practices? [the same could be asked of many of these questions].  


Cont. 3.Mostly) False. If it is really important that something be learned well and retained, then overlearning is not a waste of time. Overlearning may seem boring, but if it is important to learn, then it is usually necessary to learn beyond the point of basic mastery (p. 86). 4.  (Very) False. Even the best training will not bring about lasting change if there is not support for the skills or knowledge learned in training in the work environment (p. 91). A supportive climate is critical for positive transfer of training (including support from management and co-workers).  


Cont. False . The bulk of the research on adult learning (and andragogy in particular) would suggest that adults prefer a more experiential form of training than is provided by the typical lecture. Lectures tend to be more one-way communication, and adult learners are more likely to want two-way communication that is flexible and interactive. Adults also are more likely than younger learner to demand to see the immediate relevance of the training materials to their work or lives.

Thank you for your attention and participation!!!:

Thank you for your attention and participation!!!

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