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Community Health Psychology:

Community Health Psychology Week 7: Community interventions and prevention 1

Interventions: Not like the TV show:

Interventions: Not like the TV show 2

Making change in the community:

Making change in the community Successful interventions include: Involvement of prevention practitioners Community results Community-level interventions Multiple strategies across multiple settings The road to success Prevention science Community-centered models of accountability Technical assistance systems for prevention 3

Community Interventions:

Community Interventions Multicomponent – many pieces working together Combine individual and environmental change strategies across multiple settings Prevent dysfunction and promote well-being among groups in a community 4

Example: Tobacco control :

Example: Tobacco control School curriculum for youth to prevent incidence of smoking Media campaign for parents to reduce smoking in front of youth Policy efforts Smoking ban in restaurants Increased enforcement of ordinances prohibiting youth smoking 5

The rationale: Ecological theory:

The rationale: Ecological theory 6

Research-driven intervention:

Research-driven intervention Typically directed by university or research institute Articulated theory and careful measurement Usually uses experimental or quasi-experimental design Control or comparison group Funded by big agencies Usually designed, implemented, and evaluated by researchers Use entire communities as units of intervention and analysis Expensive and relatively rare 7

Community-driven intervention:

Community-driven intervention Conducted every day in schools and community settings Owned and operated by orgs in the community Little if any contact with researchers, though they may be there as evaluators 8

Community coalitions :

Community coalitions “organization of diverse interest groups that combine their human and material resources to effect a specific change the members are unable to bring about independently” Allow individuals and organizations to become involved in new and broader issues Demonstrate widespread support for issues and unmet needs Maximize power through joint action Minimize duplication of services Mobilize different community sectors to bring about change Sometimes funded by federal agencies, such as CDC, state agencies and foundations 9

Promising results :

Promising results Research-driven interventions Midwestern Prevention Project – substance abuse Project Northland – substance abuse Oregon anti-smoking intervention Prevention of Alcohol Trauma Community-driven interventions Hampton Healthy Families Partnership – adolescent pregnancy and healthy births CINCH – immunization Detroit arson prevention Saving lives program – substance abuse 10

Problem: Mixed results :

Problem: Mixed results Methodological barriers Comparison sites Connecting short- and long-term outcomes Community interventions are complex and difficult Insufficient connection between prevention science and practice 11

The road to success revisited:

The road to success revisited Prevention science User friendly products Clearinghouses of information Community-centered models of accountability Getting to Outcomes model Accountable to gov’t or other funders & to community Technical assistance systems for prevention Intermediary organizations Provide training, consultation, referrals, mechanisms for linking coalition members, means to recognize achievement, publish Build professional, organizational, & systemic capacity 12

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