HEALTH AND ILLNESS : HEALTH AND ILLNESS Prepared by:
Leonora S. Sumaylo RN, MAN Concept of Man : Concept of Man Atomistic Approach
Motivation to overcome hardship
Spiritual Virtues Concept of Man : Concept of Man E. Man as Biological Being
a. Organismic Behavior
b. Man as a System
1. Open system
2. Closed system
3. Energy-matter exchange Concept of Man : Concept of Man F. Man as a psycho-social being
G. Man as a spiritual Being Atomistic Approach : Atomistic Approach An organism composed of different organ system, each system composed of organs and each organ made up of tissue cells and cells are the basic unit of the human body. Holistic Approach : Holistic Approach Stimuli in the environment provide necessary forces to enable man to demonstrates, consciously or unconsciously.
The nature of his responses and subsequent quality of his relationship with his environment Motivation to Overcome Hardship : Motivation to Overcome Hardship Natural- to suffer for those whom he loves and wishes to protect from pain and suffering
Supernatural- one transcends pain and suffering to a higher place in the hope of non material reward. Spiritual Virtues : Spiritual Virtues Spiritual nature makes him overcome his skepticism and sets him back to the right paths of thinking.
Spiritual virtues: Faith, Hope, Charity Man as Biological Being : Man as Biological Being Man is not only a composite of isolated components, each part independent of the other but also total being with parts interrelated and interdependent upon one another Man as Biological Being : Man as Biological Being Organismic Behavior
Man normally responds as a unified whole not as a series of integrated parts
Man as a whole is different from and more than the sum of his component parts Man as Biological Being : Man as Biological Being Man as a System
Whole which function as a whole by virtue of the interdependence of its parts
A system has common or unifying boundaries with interrelated and interdependent parts.
Composed of subsystem Man as a System : Man as a System Closed System
Self sufficient and totally isolated from other systems.
Does not allow outside stimuli in any form
Uses its reserves for energy. Man as a System : Man as a System Open System
One which exchanges matter, energy or information with the environment surrounding it.
Composed of subsystems which act as a unified whole. Man as a System : Man as a System Energy Matter Exchange of Man
The interrelatedness and interdependence of man’s subsystem facilitate the energy matter exchange
An input of matter need not results in an output of matter. Man as a Psycho-Social Being : Man as a Psycho-Social Being Capable of rational, logical thinking but become irrational and illogical when provoked
As a social being- capable of relating with others
Has the capacity to cope with stressful stimuli Man as Spiritual Being : Man as Spiritual Being The unity of man in body, mind and spirit
Man is a being with complexities
Needs essential freedom of the human spirit by continuously struggles for it and the struggle is made doubly difficult when he is ill. Concept of Family : Concept of Family Definition of Family
The family is a unity of interacting persons related by ties of marriage, birth, or adoption, whose central purpose is to create and maintain a common culture which promotes the physical, mental, emotional, and social development of each of its members. Concept of Family : Concept of Family Definition of Structure
The structure refers to the number of members of the family and to familial positions such as mother, father, son, daughter, grandfather, grandmother, uncles and aunts, cousins and other kin. Concept of Family : Concept of Family Definition of Function
The functions refer to how the families satisfy their physical and psychological needs in order to maintain the family and to survive as a group. Concept of Family : Concept of Family Definition of Developmental Task
A developmental task is a task which arises at or about a certain period in the life of individuals, successful achievement of which leads to their happiness and to success with later tasks, while failure leads to unhappiness in the individuals, disapproval by the society, and difficulty with later tasks. Concept of Family : Concept of Family Functions of the family
Socialization Function Physical Function : Physical Function Carried out by providing a safe, comfortable environment necessary to growth, development and rest/recuperation
Physical Care of Family Members—food, shelter, clothing, protection from danger, illness, and injury Economic Function : Economic Function Provide financial aid for members as well as meeting monetary needs of society. Reproductive Function : Reproductive Function to bear children /met by the birth of children Socialization Function : Socialization Function Teaching and transmitting of beliefs, values, attitudes and coping mechanisms, providing feedback and guiding problem solving
teaching them to fit into our society, follow rules, acceptance of others, honesty, sharing, fair play, good manners, politeness Concept of Family : Concept of Family Family Structure
Alternate Family Structure Traditional Family : Traditional Family autonomous unit in which both parents reside in the home with their children. The mother often assuming the nurturing role and the father providing the necessary economic resources Traditional Family : Traditional Family Nuclear Family- family structure of parents and their offspring
Extended Family- relatives of nuclear families such as grandparents or aunts, uncles Single Parent Family : Single Parent Family one parent with children
reasons for single parenthood including death of a spouse, separation, divorce, birth of a child to an unmarried woman, or adoption of a child by a single man or woman. Single Parent Family : Single Parent Family The stresses of single parenthood are; child care concerns, financial concerns, role overload and fatigue in managing daily tasks and social isolation. Alternate Family : Alternate Family a. Cohabiting family (or communal)
families consist of unrelated individuals or families who live under one roof. Alternate Family : Alternate Family Reasons for cohabiting may be a need for companionship, a desire to achieve a sense of family, testing a relationship or commitment, or sharing expenses and household management. Alternate Family : Alternate Family Cohabiting families illustrate the flexibility and creativity of the family unit in adapting to individual challenges and changing societal needs. Alternate Family : Alternate Family A single person is not living with others, he or she is part of a family of origin, usually has a social network with significant others which include:
a. young adults who has achieved independence and enters the work force. Alternate Family : Alternate Family b. elderly persons, left alone through death of a spouse. Concept of Family : Concept of Family Family Stages and Tasks
Family with Pre-School Children Concept of Family : Concept of Family 4. Family with School-Age children
5. Family with Teen-Ages and Young Adults
6. Post Parental Family
7. Aging Family I. Beginning Family : I. Beginning Family Married couple with no children
Average length of stage is 2 to 3 years
Greatest marital satisfaction experienced I. Beginning Family : I. Beginning Family Developmental Tasks:
Establishing a home base in a place to call their own.
Establishing mutually satisfactory systems for getting and spending money.
Establishing mutually acceptable patterns of who does what and who is accountable to whom. I. Beginning Family : I. Beginning Family Developmental Tasks:
Establishing a continuity of mutually satisfying sex relationships.
Establishing systems of intellectual and emotional communication.
Establishing workable relationships with relatives. I. Beginning Family : I. Beginning Family Developmental Tasks:
Establishing ways of interacting with friends, associates and community organizations.
Facing the possibility of children and planning for their coming.
Establishing a workable philosophy of life as a couple. II. Child Bearing Family : II. Child Bearing Family Childbearing about 30 months apart
Average 2 children/family
Half of women work outside of the home
Average length of stage is 2 years
Marital satisfaction begins to lessen (continues to decline through stage IV or V) II. Child Bearing Family : II. Child Bearing Family Developmental Tasks:
Having and adjusting to infant
Adapting housing arrangements for the life of the little child.
Meeting the costs of family living at the childbearing stage.
Reworking patterns of mutual responsibility and accountability. II. Child Bearing Family : II. Child Bearing Family Developmental Tasks:
Re-establishing mutually satisfying sexual relationships.
Refining intellectual and emotional communication systems for childbearing and rearing.
Re-establishing working relationships with relatives. II. Child Bearing Family : II. Child Bearing Family Developmental Tasks:
Fitting into community life as a young family.
Planning for further children in the family.
Reworking a suitable philosophy of life as a family. Family with Pre School Children : Family with Pre School Children This family’s oldest child is 30 months to 6 years.
Deeply involved in childrearing
Average length of stage is 3 years Family with Pre School Children : Family with Pre School Children Developmental Tasks:
Supplying adequate space, facilities, and equipment for the expanding family.
Adapting to needs of preschool children to stimulate growth and development
Coping with parental loss of energy and privacy Family with Pre School Children : Family with Pre School Children Developmental Tasks:
Meeting predictable and unexpected costs of family life with small children.
Sharing responsibilities within the expanded family and between members of the growing family.
Maintaining mutually satisfying sexual relationships and planning for future children. Family with Pre School Children : Family with Pre School Children Developmental Tasks:
Creating and maintaining effective communication systems within the family.
Cultivating the full potentials of relationships with relatives within the extended family. Family with Pre School Children : Family with Pre School Children Developmental Tasks:
Tapping resources, serving needs, and enjoying contacts outside the family.
Facing dilemmas and reworking philosophies of life Family with School Age Children : Family with School Age Children Family’s oldest child is between six and 13 years old.
With children in school, mom has more free time and most enter work force
Average length of stage is 7 years Family with School Age Children : Family with School Age Children Developmental Tasks:
Providing for children's activity and parents privacy.
Encouraging and supporting children’s educational achievements Family with School Age Children : Family with School Age Children Developmental Tasks:
Keeping financially solvent.
Cooperating to get things done.
Continuing to satisfy each other as married partners. Family with School Age Children : Family with School Age Children Developmental Tasks:
Effectively utilizing family communication systems.
Feeling close to relatives in the larger family.
Tying in with life outside the family.
Testing and retesting family philosophies of life. Family with Teen-Agers &Young Adults : Family with Teen-Agers &Young Adults Oldest child is 13 to 20 years old
Marital satisfaction reaches its lowest point
Average length of stage is 7 years Family with Teen-Agers &Young Adults : Family with Teen-Agers &Young Adults Developmental Tasks:
Providing facilities for widely different needs.
Working out money matters in the family with teenagers.
Sharing the tasks and responsibilities of family living. Family with Teen-Agers &Young Adults : Family with Teen-Agers &Young Adults Developmental Tasks:
Balancing freedom with responsibility for teenagers
Supporting ethical and moral values within the family
Releasing young adults with appropriate ritual and assistance Family with Teen-Agers &Young Adults : Family with Teen-Agers &Young Adults Developmental Tasks:
Maintaining supportive home base
Putting the marriage relationship into focus and Strengthening marital relationship
Keeping communication systems open. Family with Teen-Agers &Young Adults : Family with Teen-Agers &Young Adults Developmental Tasks:
Maintaining contact with the extended family.
Growing into the world as a family and as persons.
Reworking and maintaining a philosophy of life. Post Parental Family : Post Parental Family This stage lasts from the time the last child has left home to retirement
Commonly referred to as the “empty nest” stage
Sometimes adult children return home
Begin caretaking activities for elderly relatives, especially parents and parents-in-law Post Parental Family : Post Parental Family Developmental Tasks:
Maintaining a pleasant and comfortable home.
Assuring security for the later years.
Carrying household responsibilities. Post Parental Family : Post Parental Family Developmental Tasks:
Drawing closer together as a couple.
Facing bereavement and widowhood.
Maintaining contact with children and grandchildren. Post Parental Family : Post Parental Family Developmental Tasks:
Caring for elderly relatives.
Keeping an interest in people outside the family.
Finding meanings in life. Aging Family : Aging Family Working members of the family have retired
Chronic illnesses begin to take effect
Eventually one of the spouses dies
The surviving spouse may move in with other family members or be cared for by them. Aging Family : Aging Family Developmental Tasks:
Adjusting to retirement
Adjusting to loss of spouse
Closing family home Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs : Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Physiologic Needs
Love and Belongingness
Self Esteem Needs
Self Actualization Needs Definition of Terms : Definition of Terms Heath
Illness Definition of Health : Definition of Health State of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 1947) Definition of Health (WHO) : Definition of Health (WHO) Interpretation of the definition by WHO
Reflects concern for the individual as a total person functioning physically, psychologically, and socially. Mental processes determine people’s relationship with their physical and social surroundings, their attitudes about life and their interaction with others. Definition of Health (WHO) : Definition of Health (WHO) Interpretation of the definition by WHO
Places health in the context of environment. People’s lives and therefore their health, are affected by everything they interact with-not only environmental influences such as climate and the availability of nutritious food, comfortable shelter, clean air to breathe, and pure water to drink, but also other people, including family, lovers, employers, coworkers, friends and associates of various kinds. Definition of Health (WHO) : Definition of Health (WHO) Interpretation of the definition by WHO
Equates health with productive and creative living. It focuses on the living state rather than on categories of disease that may cause illness or death. Definition of Health : Definition of Health An individual adapts to changes in internal and external environment to maintain a state of well-being.
(Patricia Potter and Anne Perry, 1993) Definition of Wellness : Definition of Wellness An integrated method of functioning which is oriented toward maximizing the potential of which the individual is capable. It requires that the individual maintain a continuum of balance and purposeful direction within the environment where he is functioning (Halbert Dunn) Definition of Illness : Definition of Illness Is a state in which someone’s needs are not sufficiently met to allow the individual to have a sense of physical and psycho-social well being. Factors Affecting Health and Illness : Factors Affecting Health and Illness Physical Dimension
Spiritual Dimension Physical Dimension : Physical Dimension Genetic make-up, age, developmental level, race and sex that strongly influence health status and health practices. Emotional Dimention : Emotional Dimention Long term stress, affects the body systems and anxiety affects health habits
Calm acceptance and relaxation can actually change body responses to illness. Intellectual Dimension : Intellectual Dimension Encompasses cognitive abilities, educational background and past experiences.
Influence a client’s responses to teaching about health and reactions to health care during illness and play a major role in health behaviors. Environmental Dimension : Environmental Dimension Influences health and illness
Housing, sanitation, climate and pollution of air, food and water are aspects of environmental dimension Socio-cultural Dimension : Socio-cultural Dimension Health practices and beliefs are strongly influenced by a person’s economic level, life style, family and culture.
The family and the culture to which the person belongs determine patterns of living and values about health and illness are often unalterable. Spiritual Dimension : Spiritual Dimension Spiritual and religious beliefs and values are important components of the way the person behaves in health and illness. Project Title: My Family : Project Title: My Family Content:
Family Assessment Family Assessment Guide : Family Assessment Guide Family Structure
Size and type
Age and sex of family members
Family Roles and Functions
Family members working outside the home, type of work and satisfaction with it Family Assessment Guide : Family Assessment Guide Family Roles and Functions
Household roles and responsibilities and how tasks are distributed
Ways child rearing responsibilities are shared Family Assessment Guide : Family Assessment Guide Family Roles and Functions
Major decision maker and methods of decision making
Family members’ satisfaction with roles, the way tasks are divided and the way decisions are made. Family Assessment Guide : Family Assessment Guide Physical Health Status
Current physical health status of each member
Perceptions of own and other family members’ health Family Assessment Guide : Family Assessment Guide Physical Health Status
Preventive health practices (e.g. status of immunizations, oral hygiene practices, regularity of visual examination
Routine health care when and why Family Assessment Guide : Family Assessment Guide Interaction Patterns
Ways of expressing affection, love, sorrow, anger
Most significant family member in person’s life
Openness of communication with all family members Family Assessment Guide : Family Assessment Guide Family Values
Cultural and religious orientations; degree to which cultural practices are followed
Use of leisure time and whether leisure time is shared with total family unit Family Assessment Guide : Family Assessment Guide Family Values
Family’s view of education, teachers and the school system
Health values: how much emphasis is put on exercise, diet, preventive health care Family Assessment Guide : Family Assessment Guide Coping Resources
Degree of emotional support offered to one another
Availability of support persons and affiliations outside the family (e.g. friends, church memberships) Family Assessment Guide : Family Assessment Guide Coping Resources
Sources of Stress
Methods of handling stressful situations and conflicting goals of family members
Financial ability to meet current and future needs. Genogram : Genogram Genogram : Genogram Genogram : Genogram Ecomap : Ecomap The Ecomap exists to illustrate connections and relationships that do or do not exist that can help or hurt a family’s ability to protect their children. It can illustrate 3 separate dimensions for each connection Ecomap : Ecomap 1. The STRENGTH of the connection (Weak; tenuous/uncertain; Strong)
2. The IMPACT of the connection (none; draining resources or energy; providing resources or energy)
3. The QUALITY of the connection (Stressful; Not stressful) Ecomap : Ecomap Ecomap : Ecomap