uet..Engineering Materials - Lec-02

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Engineering Materials:

Engineering Materials

Engineering Materials, Historical perspective:

Engineering Materials, Historical perspective Cultural evolution can be devoted to evolution of materials Every civilization have been designated by the level of their material development Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age Primitive people did only selection without pondering into structures of elements and their properties This knowledge, acquired over approximately the past 100 years, has empowered us to fashion, to a large degree, the characteristics of materials . Tens of thousands of different materials have evolved with rather specialized characteristics that meet the needs of our modern and complex society; these include metals, plastics, glasses , and fibers .

Engineering Materials:

Engineering Materials Can you identify the times in the history of Pakistan when material availability played a critical role? Can you give examples of materials’ significance in Warfare, Medical science, Computers, C ity and Village culture?

Engineering materials:

Engineering materials “Materials S cience ” involves investigating the relationships that exist between the structures and properties of materials. In contrast, “Materials E ngineering” is , on the basis of these structure–property correlations, designing or engineering the structure of a material to produce a predetermined set of properties.


Structure T he S tructure of a material usually relates to the arrangement of its internal components . Subatomic structure involves electrons within the individual atoms and interactions with their nuclei. On an atomic level , structure encompasses the organization of atoms or molecules relative to one another . The next larger structural realm , which contains large groups of atoms that are normally agglomerated together, is termed “ microscopic ,” meaning that which is subject to direct observation using some type of microscope . Finally , structural elements that may be viewed with the naked eye are termed “ macroscopic . ”


Property A property is a material trait in terms of the kind and magnitude of response to a specific imposed stimulus . For example, A specimen subjected to forces will experience deformation , or a polished metal surface will reflect light .

Classification of Properties:

Classification of Properties Mechanical (Elastic modulus, strength etc.) Electrical (Electrical conductivity, dielectric constant) Thermal (Thermal conductivity) Magnetic (Response to magnetic field) Optical (Refractive index, reflectivity etc.) Deteriorative (Chemical reactivity of materials) Each property responds to a specific stimulus

Processing and Performance:

Processing and Performance Close relationship of Structure, Properties, Processing, and Performance of materials With regard to the relationships of these four components, the structure of a material will depend on how it is processed Furthermore, a material’s performance will be a function of its properties

Example (Aluminum Oxide):

Example (Aluminum Oxide)

Why Study Engineering Materials?:

Why Study Engineering Materials? Of course, materials scientists and engineers are specialists who are totally involved in the investigation and design of materials. Many times, a materials problem is one of selecting the right material from the many thousands that are available. There are several criteria on which the final decision is normally based . General selection criteria: In-service Conditions (Trade-off required in properties) Deterioration of material Economics

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