GOD

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GOD:

GOD God  is often conceived as the Supreme Being and principal object of faith . [ The  concept of God as described by theologians commonly includes the attributes of omniscience (infinite knowledge), omnipotence (unlimited power), omnipresence (present everywhere),  omnibenevolence (perfect goodness), divine simplicity, and eternal and necessary existence. In theism, God is the creator and sustainer of the universe, while in  deism God is the creator, but not the sustainer, of the universe .  

Etymology and usage:

Etymology and usage The earliest written form of the Germanic word  God  (always, in this usage,  capitalized comes from the 6th century  Christian. The English word itself is derived from the Proto-Germanic *  ǥuđan . Most linguists [ who ?  agree that the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form* ǵhu - tó -m was based on the root * ǵhau (ə)-, which meant either "to call" or "to invoke ".  The Germanic words for  God  were originally neuter—applying to both genders—but during the process of the Christianization of the Germanic peoples from their indigenous Germanic paganism, the words became a masculine syntactic form.

General conceptions :

General conceptions There is no clear consensus on the nature of God .  The Abrahamic conceptions of God include the  monotheistIc  definition of God in Judaism, the  trinitarianview of Christians, and the Islamic concept of God. The  dharmic religions differ in their view of the divine: views of God in Hinduism vary by region, sect, and caste, ranging from monotheistic to polytheistic to atheistic. Divinity was recognized by the historical Buddha, particularly  Śakra  and Brahma. However, other sentient beings, including gods, can at best only play a supportive role in one's personal path to salvation. Conceptions of God in the latter developments of the Mahayana tradition give a more prominent place to notions of the divine.

Oneness :

Oneness Monotheists hold that there is only one god, and may claim that the one true god is worshiped in different religions under different names. The view that all theists actually worship the same god, whether they know it or not, is especially emphasized in  Hinduism  and Sikhism . In Christianity, most Christians believe in Trinitarian monotheis , known simply as the Trinity. The doctrine of the Trinity defines God as one God in three persons. The Trinity is composed of God the Father, God the Son (Jesus), and God the Holy Spirit . Islam's most fundamental concept is  tawhīd  (meaning "oneness" or "uniqueness"). God is described in the Qur'an as: "Say: He is Allah, the One and Only; Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him ."Muslims repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension or equal and does not resemble any of his creations in any way. Thus, Muslims are not  iconodules , and are not expected to visualize God

Theism, deism and pantheism :

Theism, deism and pantheism Theism generally holds that God exists realistically, objectively, and independently of human thought; that God created and sustains everything; that God is omnipotent and eternal; and that God is personal and interacting with the universe through, for example, religious experieCE And the prayers of humans.Theism holds that God is both transcendent and immanent; thus, God is simultaneously infinite and in some way present in the affairs of the world . [ Not all theists subscribe to all the above propositions, but they usually subscribe to a fair number [  of them (see, by way of comparison, family resemblance ). [  Catholic theology holds that God is infinitely simple and is not involuntarily subject to time. Most theists hold that God is omnipotent, omniscient, and benevolent, although this belief raises questions about God's responsibility for evil and suffering in the world. Some theists ascribe to God a self-conscious or purposeful limiting of omnipotence, omniscience, or benevolence. Open Theism, by contrast, asserts that, due to the nature of time, God's omniscience does not mean the deity can predict the future.  Theism  is sometimes used to refer in general to any belief in a god or gods, i.e., monotheism or polytheism . [ Deism holds that God is wholly transcendent: God exists, but does not intervene in the world beyond what was necessary to create it.In this view, God is not anthropomorphic and does not literally answer prayers or cause miracles to occur. Common in Deism is a belief that God has no interest in humanity and may not even be aware of humanity.  Pandeism  and  Panendeism , respectively, combine Deism with the Pantheistic or Panentheistic beliefs discussed below .   Pandeism is proposed to explain as to Deism why God would create a universe and then abandon it, [41]  and as to Pantheism, the origin and purpose of the universe. [41] [42] Pantheism holds that God is the universe and the universe is God, whereas  Panentheismholds that God contains, but is not identical to, the Universe. [ citation needed  It is also the view of theLiberal Catholic Church,  Theosophysome views of Hinduism except  Vaishnavism , which believes in  panentheism , Sikhism, some divisions of  Neopaganism  and Taoism, along with many varying denominations and individuals within denominations. Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism, paints a pantheistic/ panentheistic view of God – which has wide acceptance in Hasidic Judais particularly from their founder The Baal Shem Tov– but only as an addition to the Jewish view of a personal god, not in the original pantheistic sense that denies or limits persona to God.

Non-theistic views of God :

Non-theistic views of God Nontheism  holds that the universe can be explained without any reference to the supernatural, or to a supernatural being. Some non-theists avoid the concept of God, whilst accepting that it is significant to many; other non-theists understand God as a symbol of human values and aspirations. The nineteenth-century English atheist Charles Bradlaugh  declared that he refused to say "There is no God", because "the word 'God' is to me a sound conveying no clear or distinct affirmation "; ] he said more specifically that he disbelieved in the Christian God. Stephen Jay Gould proposed an approach dividing the world of philosophy into what he called "non-overlapping magisteria " (NOMA). In this view, questions of the supernatural, such as those relating to the existence and nature of God, are non-empirical and are the proper domain of theology. The methods of science should then be used to answer any empirical question about the natural world, and theology should be used to answer questions about ultimate meaning and moral value. In this view, the perceived lack of any empirical footprint from the magisterium of the supernatural onto natural events makes science the sole player in the natural world

Anthropomorphism :

Anthropomorphism Pascal Boyer argues that while there is a wide array of supernatural concepts found around the world, in general, supernatural beings tend to behave much like people. The construction of gods and spirits like persons is one of the best known traits of religion. He cites examples from Greek mythology, which is, in his opinion, more like a modern soap opera than other religious systems . [  Bertrand du Castel and Timothy Jurgensen  demonstrate through formalization that Boyer's explanatory model matches physics' epistemology in positing not directly observable entities as intermediaries .   AnthropologiSt  Stewart Guthriecontends that people project human features onto non-human aspects of the world because it makes those aspects more familiar. Sigmund Freud also suggested that god concepts are projections of one's father.

Existence of God :

Existence of God Countless arguments have been proposed in attempt to prove the existence of God.Some of the most notable arguments are the Five Ways of Aquinas, the Argument from Desireproposed by C.S. Lewis, and the Ontological Argument formulated both by St. Anselm and Descartes .  Even among theists, these proofs are debated, and some, such as the Ontological Argument, are highly controversial.  Aquinas spends a section of his treatise on God refuting St. Anselm'sproof . St. Anselm's approach was to define God as, "that than which nothing greater can be conceived". Famed pantheist philosopher Baruch Spinoza would later carry this idea to its extreme: “By God I understand a being absolutely infinite, i.e., a substance consisting of infinite attributes, of which each one expresses an eternal and infinite essence.” For Spinoza, the whole of the natural universe is made of one substance, God, or its equivalent, Nature .  His proof for the existence of God was a variation of the Ontological argument.

Relationship with creation :

Relationship with creation Prayer plays a significant role among many believers. Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God . ] He is viewed as a personal God and there are no intermediaries, such as  clergy to contact God. Prayer often also includes supplication and asking forgiveness. God is often believed to be forgiving. For example, a hadith states God would replace a sinless people with one who sinned but still asked repentance . ] Christian theologian  Alister McGrath writes that there are good reasons to suggest that a "personal god" is integral to the Christian outlook, but that one has to understand it is an analogy. "To say that God is like a person is to affirm the divine ability and willingness to relate to others. This does not imply that God is human, or located at a specific point in the universe ." Adherents of different religions generally disagree as to how to best worship God and what is God's plan for mankind, if there is one. There are different approaches to reconciling the contradictory claims of monotheistic religions. One view is taken by exclusivists, who believe they are thechosen people or have exclusive access to  absolutetruth,generally through  revelation or encounter with the Divine, which adherents of other religions do not. Another view is religious pluralism

Theological approaches :

Theological approaches heologians and philosophers have ascribed a number of attributes to God, including omniscience,  omnipotence , omnipresence, perfect goodness, divine simplicity, and  eternal   andnecessary  existence. God has been described as incorporeal, a personal being, the source of all moral obligation, and the greatest conceivable being existent .  These attributes were all claimed to varying degrees by the early Jewish, Christian and Muslim scholars, including St Augustine , ] Al- Ghazali ,  and Maimonides . Many medieval philosophers developed arguments for the existence of God ,  while attempting to comprehend the precise implications of God's attributes. Reconciling some of those attributes generated important philosophical problems and debates. For example, God's omniscience may seem to imply that God knows how free agents will choose to act. If God does know this, their apparent free will might be illusory, or foreknowledge does not imply predestination; and if God does not know it, God may not be omniscient. [

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