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LOVE Love  is a variety of different feelings, states, and attitudes that ranges from interpersonal affection ("I love my mother") to pleasure ("I loved that meal"). It can refer to an emotion of a strong  attractionand personal  attachment [1 It can also be a virtue representing human  kindness , compassion, and affection—"the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another ".It may also describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals .


DIFINITION The word "love" can have a variety of related but distinct meanings in different contexts. Many other languages use multiple words to express some of the different concepts that in English are denoted as "love"; one example is the plurality of Greek words for "love". Cultural differenceS in conceptualizing love thus doubly impede the establishment of a universal definition . Although the nature or essence of love is a subject of frequent debate, different aspects of the word can be clarified by determining what  isn't  love (antonyms of "love"). Love as a general expression of positive sentiment (a stronger form of  like ) is commonly contrasted with hate (or neutral apathy); as a less sexual and more emotionally intimate form of romantic attachment, love is commonly contrasted with lust; and as an interpersonal relationship with romantic overtones, love is sometimes contrasted with friendship, although the word  love  is often applied to close friendships. (Further possible ambiguities come with usages "girlfriend", "boyfriend", "just good friends").


IMPERSONAL LOVE A person can be said to love an object, principle, or goal to which they are deeply committed and greatly value. For example, compassionate outreach and volunteer workers' "love" of their cause may sometimes be born not of interpersonal love but impersonal love,  altruism and strong spiritual or political convictions.People can also "love" material objects, animals, or activities if they invest themselves in bonding or otherwise identifying with those things. If sexual passion is also involved, then this feeling is called  paraphilia .


INTERPERSONAL LOVE Interpersonal love refers to love between human beings. It is a much more potent sentiment than a simple  liking  for another. Unrequited love refers to those feelings of love that are not reciprocated. Interpersonal love is most closely associated with interpersonal relationships.Such love might exist between family members, friends, and couples. There are also a number of psychological disorders related to love, such as  erotomania . Pair of Lovers . 1480–1485 Throughout history, philosophy and religion have done the most speculation on the phenomenon of love. In the 20th century, the science of psychology has written a great deal on the subject. In recent years, the sciences of psychology, anthropology, neuroscience, and biology have added to the understanding of the nature and function of love.


BIOLOGICAL BASIS Biological models of sex tend to view love as a mammalian drive, much like hunger or  thirst  Helen Fisher, a leading expert in the topic of love, divides the experience of love into three partly overlapping stages: lust, attraction, and attachment. Lust is the feeling of sexual desire; romantic attraction determines what partners mates find attractive and pursue, conserving time and energy by choosing; and attachment involves sharing a home, parental duties, mutual defense, and in humans involves feelings of safety and security .  Three distinct neural circuitries, including neurotransmitters, and three behavioral patterns, are associated with these three romantic styles . Lustis the initial passionate seXual desire that promotes mating, and involves the increased release of chemicals such as testosterone and estrogen. These effects rarely last more than a few weeks or months. Attraction is the more individualized and romantic desire for a specific candidate for mating, which develops out of lust as commitment to an individual mate forms.


PSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS Psychology depicts love as a cognitive and social phenomenon.  Psychologist Robert Sternberg formulated a  triangular theory of love and argued that love has three different components: intimacy, commitment, and passion. Intimacy is a form in which two people share confidences and various details of their personal lives, and is usually shown in friendships and romantic love affairs. Commitment, on the other hand, is the expectation that the relationship is permanent. The last and most common form of love is sexual attraction and passion. Passionate love is shown in infatuation as well as romantic love. All forms of love are viewed as varying combinations of these three components. Non-love does not include any of these components. Liking only includes intimacy. Infatuated love only includes passion. Empty love only includes commitment. Romantic love includes both intimacy and passion. Companionate love includes intimacy and commitment. Fatuous love includes passion and commitment. Lastly, consummate love includes all three .  American psychologist  Zick Rubin sought to define  love  by psychometrics in the 1970s. His work states that three factors constitute love: attachment, caring, and intimacy. [


EVOLUTIONARY BASIS Evolutionary psychology has attempted to provide various reasons for love as a survival tool. Humans are dependent on parental help for a large portion of their lifespans compared to other mammals. Love has therefore been seen as a mechanism to promote parental support of children for this extended time period. Another factor may be that sexually transmitted diseases  can cause, among other effects, permanently reduced  fertility injury to the fetus, and increase complications during childbirth. This would favor monogamous relationships


CULTURAL VIEWS ANCIENT GREEK Greek distinguishes several different senses in which the word "love" is used. For example, Ancient Greek has the words  philia ,  eros ,  agape ,  storge , and  xenia . However, with Greek (as with many other languages), it has been historically difficult to separate the meanings of these words totally. At the same time, the Ancient Greek text of the  BibLe  has examples of the  veRb agapo having the same meaning as  phileo . Agape  ( ἀγά πη  agápē ) means  love  in modern-day Greek. The term  s'agapo  means  I love you  in Greek. The word  agapo  is the verb  I love . It generally refers to a "pure," ideal type of love, rather than the physical attraction suggested by  eros . However, there are some examples of  agape  used to mean the same as  eros . It has also been translated as "love of the soul." Eros  ( ἔρως   érōs ) (from the Greek deity Eros) is passionate love, with sensual desire and longing. The Greek word  erota  means  in love .  Platorefined his own definition. Although eros is initially felt for a person, with contemplation it becomes an appreciation of the beauty within that person, or even becomes appreciation of beauty itself. Eros helps the soul recall knowledge of beauty and contributes to an understanding of spiritual truth Philia  ( φιλί α  philía ), a dispassionate virtuous love, was a concept addressed and developed by Aristotle .  It includes loyalty to friends, family, and community, and requires virtue, equality, and familiarity. Philia is motivated by practical reasons; one or both of the parties benefit from the relationship. It can also mean "love of the mind." Storge  ( στοργή   storgē ) is natural affection, like that felt by parents for offspring.


CULTURAL VIEWS ANCIENT ROMAN The Latin languaGe  has several different verbs corresponding to the English word "love."  amō  is the basic verb meaning  I love , with the infinitive  amare  (“to love”) as it still is in  ItaliAn  today. The Romans used it both in an affectionate sense as well as in a romantic or sexual sense. From this verb come  amans —a lover, amator , "professional lover," often with the accessory notion of lechery—and  amica , "girlfriend" in the English sense, often being applied euphemistically to a prostitute. The corresponding noun is  amor  (the significance of this term for the Romans is well illustrated in the fact, that the name of the City, Rome—in Latin:  Roma —can be viewed as an anagram for  amor , which was used as the secret name of the City in wide circles in ancient times ), ]  which is also used in the plural form to indicate love affairs or sexual adventures. This same root also produces  amicus —"friend"—and  amicitia , "friendship" (often based to mutual advantage, and corresponding sometimes more closely to "indebtedness" or "influence"). Cicero wrote a treatise called  On Friendship  ( de Amicitia ), which discusses the notion at some length. Ovid wrote a guide to dating called  Ars Amatoria ( The Art of Love ), which addresses, in depth, everything from extramarital affairsto overprotective parents.


CULTURAL VIEWS PERSIAN RuMi , Hafiz and  Sa'di  are icons of the passion and love that the Persian culture and language present. The Persian word for love is  eshgh ,derived from the Arabic  ishq , however is considered by most to be too stalwart a term for interpersonal love and is more commonly substituted for ' doost dashtan ' ('liking ').In the Persian culture, everything is encompassed by love and all is for love, starting from loving friends and family, husbands and wives, and eventually reaching the divine love that is the ulti mate goal in life .  Over seven centuries ago. JAPANESE In Japanese Buddhism   ai  ( 愛 ) is passionate caring love, and a fundamental desire. It can develop towards either selfishness or selflessness and enlightenment.  Amae ( 甘え ), a Japanese word meaning "indulgent dependence," is part of the child-rearing culture of Japan. Japanese mothers are expected to hug and indulge their children, and children are expected to reward their mothers by clinging and serving. Some  sociologistshave suggested that Japanese social interactions in later life are modeled on the mother-child amae .


POLITICAL VIEWS FREE LOVE The term  free love  has been used  ] to describe a social movemen  that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage. The Free Love movement’s initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage,  birth control , and adultery. It claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, and no one else . Many people in the early 19th century believed that marriage was an important aspect of life to "fulfill earthly human happiness." Middle-class Americans wanted the home to be a place of stability in an uncertain world. This mentality created a vision of strongly defined gender roles, which provoked the advancement of the free love movement as a contrast . The term " sex radical " is also used interchangeably with the term "free lover", and was the preferred term by advocates because of the negative connotations of "free love ".  By whatever name, advocates had two strong beliefs: opposition to the idea of forceful sexual activity in a relationship and advocacy for a woman to use her body in any way that she pleases.These are also beliefs of  Feminism.


PHILOPHISICAL VIEWS The philosophy of love is a field of  socia philosophy and ethics that attempts to  explainthe nature of love. The philosophical investigation of love includes the tasks of distinguishing between the various kinds of personal love, asking if and how love is or can be justified, asking what the value of love is, and what impact love has on the autonomy of both the lover and the beloved. Many different theories attempt to explain the nature and function of love. Explaining love to a hypothetical person who had not himself or herself experienced love or being loved would be very difficult because to such a person love would appear to be quite strange if not outright irrational behavior. Among the prevailing types of theories that attempt to account for the existence of love are: psychological theories, the vast majority of which consider love to be very healthy behavior; evolutionary theories which hold that love is part of the process of natural selection; spiritual theories which may, for instance consider love to be a gift from a god; and theories that consider love to be an unexplainable mystery, very much like a mystical experience.

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