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EMOTIONS In psychology and philosophy,  emotion  is a  subjectiVe , conscious experience characterized primarily by psychophysiological  expressions,biological reactions, and mental statEs . Emotion is often associated and considered reciprocally influential with  moOd  temperament,  personality,disposition , and motivation. [1]  It also is influenced by  hormonesand  neurotransmitters such as dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin,  oxytocincortisOland  GABA. Emotion is often the driving force behind motivation, positive or negative . []  An alternative definition of emotion is a "positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity.


DIFINITIONS AND DIFFERENTIATION The word "emotion" dates back to 1579, when it was adapted from the French word  émouvoir , which means "to stir up". However, the earliest precursors of the word likely dates back to the very origins of language . Emotions have been described as discrete and consistent responses to internal or external events which have a particular significance for the organism. Emotions are brief in duration and consist of a coordinated set of responses, which may include verbal,  physiological ,  behavioural , and  lmechanisms.Psychotherapist Michael C. Graham describes all emotions has existing on a continuum of intensity . ]  Thus fear might range from mild concern to terror or shame might range from simple embarrassment to toxic shame . [  Emotions have also been described as biologically given and a result of  evolutionbecause they provided good solutions to ancient and recurring problems that faced our ancestors . ] Emotion can be differentiated from a number of similar constructs within the field of affective neuroscience Feelings  are best understood as a subjective representation of emotions, private to the individual experiencing them. Moods  are diffuse affective states that generally last for much longer durations than emotions and are also usually less intense than emotions. Affect  is an encompassing term, used to describe the topics of emotion, feelings, and moods together, even though it is commonly used interchangeably with emotion. In addition, relationships exist between emotions, such as having positive or negative influences, with direct opposites existing. These concepts are described in contrasting and categorization of emotions. Graham differentiates emotions as functional or dysfunctional and argues all functional emotions have benefits.


C omponents In Scherer's components processing model of emotion ,  five crucial elements of emotion are said to exist. From the component processing perspective, emotion experience is said to require that all of these processes become coordinated and synchronized for a short period of time, driven by appraisal processes. Although the inclusion of cognitive appraisal as one of the elements is slightly controversial, since some theorists make the assumption that emotion and cognition are separate but interacting systems, the component processing model provides a sequence of events that effectively describes the coordination involved during an emotional episode. Cognitive appraisal:  provides an evaluation of events and objects Bodily symptoms:  the physiological component of emotional experience Action tendencies:  a motivational component for the preparation and direction of motor responses. Expression:  facial and vocal expression almost always accompanies an emotional state tO communicate reaction and intention of actions Feelings:  the subjective experience of emotional state once it has occurred


CLASSIFICATION A distinction can be made between emotional episodes and emotional dispositions. Emotional dispositions are also comparable to character traits, where someone may be said to be generally disposed to experience certain emotions. For example, an irritable person is generally disposed to feel irritation more easily or quickly than others do. Finally, some theorists place emotions within a more general category of "affective states" where affective states can also include emotion-related phenomena such as pleasure and pain, motivational states (for example, hunger  orcuriosity ), moods, dispositions and traits . [ The classification of emotions has mainly been researched from two fundamental viewpoints. The first viewpoint is that emotions are discrete and fundamentally different constructs while the second viewpoint asserts that emotions can be characterized on a dimensional basis in groupings.


BASIC EMOTION For more than 40 years, Paul Ekmanhas supported the view that emotions are discrete, measurable, and physiologically distinct. Ekman's most influential work revolved around the finding that certain emotions appeared to be universally recognized, even in cultures that were preliterate and could not have learned associations for facial expressions through media. Another classic study found that when participants contorted their facial muscles into distinct facial expressions (e.g. disgust), they reported subjective and physiological experiences that matched the distinct facial expressions. His research findings led him to classify six emotions as basic: anger,  disgust  fear,  happiness.sadnessand   surprise . Robert Plutchikagreed with Ekman's biologically driven perspective but developed the "wheel of emotions", suggesting eight primary emotions grouped on a positive or negative basis: joy versus sadness; anger versus fear; trust versus distrust; and surprise versus anticipation .  Some basic emotions can be modified to form complex emotions. The complex emotions could arise from cultural conditioning or association combined with the basic emotions. Alternatively, similar to the way primary colors combine,  primary emotions  could blend to form the full spectrum of human emotional experience. For example, interpersonal anger and  disgustcould blend to form contempt. Relationships exist between basic emotions, resulting in positive or negative influence

Evolutionary theories :

Evolutionary theories 19th CenturyPerspectives on emotions from evolutionary theory were initiated in the late 19th century with Charles Darwin's book  The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals .  Darwin argued that emotions actually served a purpose for humans, in communication and also in aiding their survival. Darwin, therefore, argued that emotions evolved via natural selection and therefore have universal cross-cultural counterparts. Darwin also detailed the virtues of experiencing emotions and the parallel experiences that occur in animals (see emotion in animals). This led the way for animal research on emotions and the eventual determination of the neural underpinnings of emotion.


Contemporary More contemporary views along the evolutionary psychology spectrum posit that both basic emotions and social emotions evolved to motivate (social) behaviors that were adaptive in the ancestral environment. [ 2 Current research [ citation needed ]  suggests that emotion is an essential part of any human decision-making and planning, and the famous distinction made between reason and emotion is not as clear as it seems. Paul D. MacLean claims that emotion competes with even more instinctive responses, on one hand, and the more abstract reasoning, on the other hand. The increased potential inneuroimaging has also allowed investigation into evolutionarily ancient parts of the brain. Important neurological advances were derived from these perspectives in the 1990s by Joseph E. LeDouxand   António Damásio . Research on social emotion also focuses on the physical displays of emotion including body language of animals and humans (see affect display). For example, spite seems to work against the individual but it can establish an individual's reputation as someone to be feared .  Shame and pride can motivate behaviors that help one maintain one's standing in a community, and self-esteem is one's estimate of one's status. [


PERCEPTUAL THEORY Theories dealing with perception either use one or multiples perceptions in order to find an emotion (Goldie, 2007).A recent hybrid of the somatic and cognitive theories of emotion is the perceptual theory. This theory is neo- Jamesian in arguing that bodily responses are central to emotions, yet it emphasizes the meaningfulness of emotions or the idea that emotions are about something, as is recognized by cognitive theories. The novel claim of this theory is that conceptually-based cognition is unnecessary for such meaning. Rather the bodily changes themselves perceive  the meaningful content of the emotion because of being causally triggered by certain situations. In this respect, emotions are held to be analogous to faculties such as vision or touch, which provide information about the relation between the subject and the world in various ways. A sophisticated defense of this view is found in philosopher Jesse Prinz's book  Gut Reactions , and psychologist James Laird's book  Feelings

Affective events theory:

Affective events theory This is a communication-based theory developed by Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano (1996), that looks at the causes, structures, and consequences of emotional experience (especially in work contexts). This theory suggests that emotions are influenced and caused by events which in turn influence attitudes and behaviors. This theoretical frame also emphasizes time  in that human beings experience what they call emotion episodes— a "series of emotional states extended over time and organized around an underlying theme." This theory has been utilized by numerous researchers to better understand emotion from a communicative lens, and was reviewed further by Howard M. Weiss and Daniel J. Beal in their article, "Reflections on Affective Events Theory", published in  Research on Emotion in Organizations  in 2005.

Situated perspective on emotion :

Situated perspective on emotion A situated perspective on emotion, developed by Paul E. Griffiths and Andrea Scarantino , emphasizes the importance of external factors in the development and communication of emotion, drawing upon the  situationism  approach in psychology. [34]  This theory is markedly different from both cognitivist and neo- Jamesian theories of emotion, both of which see emotion as a purely internal process, with the environment only acting as a stimulus to the emotion. In contrast, a situationist perspective on emotion views emotion as the product of an organism investigating its environment, and observing the responses of other organisms. Emotion stimulates the evolution of social relationships, acting as a signal to mediate the behavior of other organisms. In some contexts, the expression of emotion (both voluntary and involuntary) could be seen as strategic moves in the transactions between different organisms. The situated perspective on emotion states that conceptual thought is not an inherent part of emotion, since emotion is an action-oriented form of skillful engagement with the world. Griffiths and Scarantino suggested that this perspective on emotion could be helpful in understanding phobias, as well as the emotions of infants and animals.

Neurocircuitry :

Neurocircuitry Based on discoveries made through neural mapping of the limbic system, the neurobiological explanation of human emotion is that emotion is a pleasant or unpleasant mental state organized in the limbic system of the mammalian brain. If distinguished from reactive responses of reptiles, emotions would then be mammalian elaborations of general vertebrate arousal patterns, in which neurochemicals (for example, dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) step-up or step-down the brain's activity level, as visible in body movements, gestures, and postures. Emotions can likely be mediated by  pheromonEs  (see fear). [35] For example, the emotion of love is proposed to be the expression of  paleocircuits  of the mammalian brain (specifically, modules of the cingulate gyrus ) which facilitate the care, feeding, and grooming of offspring. Paleocircuits are neural platforms for bodily expression configured before the advent of  corticalcircuits  for speech. They consist of pre-configured pathways or networks of nerve cells in the forebrain, brain stem and spinal cord.

Disciplinary approaches :

Disciplinary approaches Many different disciplines have produced work on the emotions. Human sciences study the role of emotions in mental processes, disorders, and neural mechanisms. In psychiatry, emotions are examined as part of the discipline's study and treatment of mental disorders in humans.  Nursing studies emotions as part of its approach to the provision of holistic health care to humans.Psychologyexamines emotions from a scientific perspective by treating them as mental processes and behavior and they explore the underlying physiological and neurological processes. Inneurosciencesub -fields such as social neuroscience and affective neuroscience, scientists study the neural mechanisms of emotion by combining neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood. In linguistics, the expression of emotion may change to the meaning of sounds. In education, the role of emotions in relation to learnin



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