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CLIMATES Climate  is a measure of the average pattern of variation in  temperature, humidity,  atmospheric pressure,  wind,precipitation atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region. .

Definition of climate:

Definition of climate Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the "average weather," or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. The classical period is 30 years, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization ( WMO ). These quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system. [5 ]

Difference between climates and weather:

Difference between climates and weather The difference between climate and weather is usefully summarized by the popular phrase "Climate is what you expect, weather is what you get." [6]  Over historical time spans there are a number of nearly constant variables that determine climate, including latitude, altitude, proportion of land to water, and proximity to oceans and mountains. These change only over periods of millions of years due to processes such as plate tectonics. Other climate determinants are more dynamic: the  thermohaline circulationof the ocean leads to a 5 °C (9 °F) warming of the northern  Atlantic Ocean compared to other ocean basins. [7]  Other ocean currents redistribute heat between land and water on a more regional scale. The density and type of vegetation coverage affects solar heat absorption , []  water retention, and rainfall on a regional level. Alterations in the quantity of atmospheric greenhouse gases determines the amount of solar energy retained by the planet, leading to global warming or global cooliig . The variables which determine climate are numerous and the interactions complex, but there is general agreement that the broad outlines are understood, at least insofar as the determinants of historical climate change are concerned.

Climate classification:

Climate classification Bergeron and Spatial Synoptic The simplest classification is that involving air masses. The Bergeron classification is the most widely accepted form of air mass classification. [ citation needed Air mass classification involves three letters. The first letter describes its  moisturee  properties, with c used for continental air masses (dry) and m for maritime air masses (moist). The second letter describes the thermal characteristic of its source region: T for tropical, P for  polar , A for Arctic or Antarctic, M for monsoon, E for equatorial, and S for superior air (dry air formed by significant downward motion in the atmosphere). The third letter is used to designate the stability of the atmosphere. If the air mass is colder than the ground below it, it is labeled k. If the air mass is warmer than the ground below it, it is labeled w. [12]  While air mass identification was originally used in weather forecasting during the 1950s, climatologists began to establish synoptic climatologies based on this idea in 1973.

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Rain forests  are characterized by high  rainfall , with definitions setting minimum normal annual rainfall between 1,750 millimetres (69 in) and 2,000 millimetres (79 in). Mean monthly temperatures exceed 18 °C (64 °F) during all months of the year. [15] A  monsoon  is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months, ushering in a region's rainy season .  Regions within North America, South America  Sub-Saharan Afriia , Australia and East Asia are monsoon regimes. [17] A  tropical savanna  is a grassland biome located in semiarid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and  tropical  latitudes, with average temperatures remain at or above 18 °C (64 °F) year round and rainfall between 750 millimetres (30 in) and 1,270 millimetres (50 in) a year. They are widespread on  Afriia , and are found in  India , the northern parts of South America, Malaysia, and  Australia [8]

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The  humid subtropical  climate zone where winter rainfall (and sometimes  snowfall is associated with large storms that the  westerliessteer from west to east. Most summer rainfall occurs during  thunderstormsand from occasional tropical cyclones ]  Humid subtropical climates lie on the east side continents, roughly between  latitudes20 ° and 40° degrees away from the equator. [ 20 Humid continental climate,worldwide A  humid continental  climate is marked by variable weather patterns and a large seasonal temperature variance. Places with more than three months of average daily temperatures above 10 °C (50 °F) and a coldest month temperature below −3 °C (27 °F) and which do not meet the criteria for an  aridor  semiarid climate, are classified as continental. [21] An  oceanic climate  is typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the world's continents, and in southeastern  Australia and is accompanied by plentiful precipitation year round. [22] The  Mediterranean climate  regime resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, parts of western North America parts of  Westernand  South Australia, in southwestern South Africa and in parts of central Chile. The climate is characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters.

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A  subarctic climate  has little precipitation , ]  and monthly temperatures which are above 10 °C (50 °F) for one to three months of the year, withpermafrost  in large parts of the area due to the cold winters. Winters within subarctic climates usually include up to six months of temperatures averaging below 0 °C (32 °F ). [ Map of arctic tundra Tundra  occurs in the far  Northern Hemisphere, north of the taiga belt, including vast areas of northern Russia and Canada . [ A   polar ice cap , or polar ice sheet, is a high-latitude region of a planet or  moonthat is covered in ice. Ice caps form because high-latitude regions receive less energy as solar radiation from the sun than equatorial regions, resulting in lower  surfacetemperatures . [ A   desert  is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation. Deserts usually have a large diurnal and seasonal temperature range, with high or low, depending on location daytime temperatures (in summer up to 45 °C or 113 °F), and low nighttime temperatures (in winter down to 0 °C or 32 °F) due to extremely low humidity .

Modern climate:

Modern climate Details of the modern climate record are known through the taking of measurements from such weather instruments as thermometers, barometers, andanemometers  during the past few centuries. The instruments used to study weather over the modern time scale, their known error, their immediate environment, and their exposure have changed over the years, which must be considered when studying the climate of centuries past.


paleoclimatology Paleoclimatology is the study of past climate over a great period of the  Earths history. It uses evidence from ice sheets, tree rings, sediments, coral, and rocks to determine the past state of the climate. It demonstrates periods of stability and periods of change and can indicate whether changes follow patterns such as regular cycle.

Climate change:

Climate change Climate change is the variation in global or regional climates over time. It reflects changes in the variability or average state of the atmosphere over time scales ranging from decades to millions of years. These changes can be caused by processes internal to the Earth, external forces (e.g. variations in sunlight intensity) or, more recently, human activities. [42] In recent usage, especially in the context of environmental policy, the term "climate change" often refers only to changes in modern climate, including the rise in average surface temperature known as global warming. In some cases, the term is also used with a presumption of human causation, as in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The UNFCCC uses "climate variability" for non-human caused variations. [4

Climate models:

Climate models Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the  atmosphere 45 ]   oceans , land surface and ice. They are used for a variety of purposes; from the study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system, to projections of future climate. All climate models balance, or very nearly balance, incoming energy as short wave (including visible) electromagnetic radiation to the earth with outgoing energy as long wave (infrared) electromagnetic radiation from the earth. Any imbalance results in a change in the average temperature of the earth. The most talked-about applications of these models in recent years have been their use to infer the consequences of increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, primarily carbon dioxide (see greenhouse gasThese models predict an upward trend in the global mean surface temperaturewith the most rapid increase in temperature being projected for the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.

By;geziel marie a. ramoso:

By;geziel marie a. ramoso

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