Human Reproduction

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Human fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the uterine tube. The result of this union is the production of a zygote, or fertilized egg, initiating prenatal development. Scientists discovered the dynamics of human fertilization in the nineteenth century. The process of fertilization involves a sperm fusing with an ovum — usually following ejaculation during sexual intercourse. It is possible, but less probable, for fertilization to occur without sexual intercourse, artificial insemination, or In vitro fertilization. Upon encountering the ovum, the acrosome of the sperm produces enzymes which allow it to burrow through the outer jelly coat of the egg. The sperm plasma then fuses with the egg's plasma membrane, the sperm head disconnects from its flagellum and the egg travels down the Fallopian tube to reach the uterus. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a process by which egg cells are fertilized by sperm outside the womb, in vitro. Human fertilization

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Fetal Development From conception to birth Day 1: fertilization: all human chromosomes are present; unique human life begins. Day 6: embryo begins implantation in the uterus. Day 22: heart begins to beat with the child's own blood, often a different type than the mothers'. Week 3 : By the end of third week the child's backbone spinal column and nervous system are forming. The liver, kidneys and intestines begin to take shape. Week 4: By the end of week four the child is ten thousand times larger than the fertilized egg. Week 5: Eyes, legs, and hands begin to develop.

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Fetal Development From conception to birth Week 6: Brain waves are detectable; mouth and lips are present; fingernails are forming. Week 7: Eyelids, and toes form, nose distinct.  The baby is kicking and swimming. Week 8: Every organ is in place, bones begin to replace cartilage, and fingerprints begin to form.  By the 8th week the baby can begin to hear. Weeks 9 and 10: Teeth begin to form, fingernails develop.  The baby can turn his head, and frown. The baby can hiccup. Weeks 10 and 11: The baby can "breathe" amniotic fluid and urinate.  Week 11 the baby can grasp objects placed in its hand; all organ systems are functioning.  The baby has a skeletal structure, nerves, and circulation.

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Fetal Development From conception to birth Week 12: The baby has all of the parts necessary to experience pain, including nerves, spinal cord, and thalamus. Vocal cords are complete.  The baby can suck its thumb. Week 14: At this age, the heart pumps several quarts of blood through the body every day. Week 15: The baby has an adult's taste buds. Month 4: Bone Marrow is now beginning to form.  The heart is pumping 25 quarts of blood a day. By the end of month 4 the baby will be 8-10 inches in length and will weigh up to half a pound. Week 17: The baby can have dream (REM) sleep. Week 19: Babies can routinely be saved at 21 to 22 weeks after fertilization, and sometimes they can be saved even younger.

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Fetal Development From conception to birth Week 20: The earliest stage at which Partial birth abortions are performed.  At 20 weeks the baby recognizes its' mothers voice. Months 5 and 6: The baby practices breathing by inhaling amniotic fluid into its developing lungs. The baby will grasp at the umbilical cord when it feels it.  Most mothers feel an increase in movement, kicking, and hiccups from the baby.  Oil and sweat glands are now functioning.  The baby is now twelve inches long or more, and weighs up to one and a half pounds. Months 7 through 9: Eyelids are present.  The baby opens and closes his eyes.  The baby is using four of the five senses (vision, hearing, taste, and touch.) He knows the difference between waking and sleeping, and can relate to the moods of the mother.  The baby's skin begins to thicken, and a layer of fat is produced and stored beneath the skin.  Antibodies are built up, and the baby's heart begins to pump 300 gallons of blood per day.  Approximately one week before the birth the baby stops growing, and "drops" usually head down into the pelvic cavity.

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Generally, a woman gives birth to only one child at a time. Sometimes, a woman gives birth to two or more children at a time. The two children born of the same mother at a time are called twins. Do you know how twins are born? An egg known as ovum is produced by the reproductive organs of the female between the 10th and the 18th day from the start of menstruation. If a female mates with a male during this period, one of the male sperms enters into the ovum. This combination of ovum and sperm is called fertilization and the female is said to have become pregnant. The woman gives birth to a child after 280 days. After the conception, sometimes the ovum divides into two parts and these two parts develop separately in the womb as two embryos. As a result, such woman gives birth to two children at the same time. The two children so produced look similar in their personality. The children will always be either girls or both boys, as both the children are produced from the same ovum. Sometimes two sperms from the male semen enter separately into two ova of the same female. Then two embryos develop in the womb and the woman gives birth to two children. The children so produced may or may not have same sex and they have different habits. How Are Twins Born?

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