Final Columbia and Its Wars against Drug Trafficking

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Columbia and Its Wars against Drug Trafficking:

Columbia and Its Wars against Drug Trafficking 1970 – 2010


Colombia different from other countries Identify key players and their role A brief history on Colombia’s civil conflict: 1970-2000 Analyzing the judicial, legal, and institutional aspects during 4 time periods 1970 Local 1980-1988 Judical system 1988-1991 Narco-terriorism 1991-2000 Rewards & punishments Major Cartels collapse Advantages & Disadvantages Uribe Administration Peace Negotiations Conclusion Critical thinking questions References Outline

Why Colombia:

Why Colombia Long Hx of internal armed conflict between leftist guerrillas & right wing paramilitaries span of 50 years Columbia worlds major cocaine producing country - 62% global total in 2006 (610 tons ) Second in the world for displacing people due to violence Highest homicide rate in the region in 1991 – 80 per 100,000 inhabitants Massacres Largest # of extortive kidnappings in the Large volume of kidnappings in world

Key Players in drug trafficking:

Key Players in drug trafficking

1970 Not yet national nor global:

1970 Not yet national nor global Marijuana introduce on the Atlantic coast Marginal & Local issue No national security issue No “special” criminal statue Dealt by local police & local judiciary 1979 – Signed Extradition Treaty

1980’s :

1980’s Alliance between drug traffickers and paramilitaries Violence against judges 1st assassinations of judges & high ranking officers Paralyzing the judicial system Extradition Treaty declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of Justice 2 major cartels join forces

Violence against judges, 1979-1998:

Violence against judges, 1979-1998 Figure 1

1988 & 1991 Narco-terrorism:

1988 & 1991 Narco -terrorism Large volume of High-ranking public figures assassinated 1989 - President candidate Luis Carlos Galan Rochela massacre – group of judicial officials Attacks in public places and institutions Columbia’s Response to the violence President Virgilio Barco (1986-1990) reestablished the Extradtion Treaty 2 nd time Extradition Treaty Denied Granted more power to local police, increase violence

1991 – 2000 Policy: rewards & punishment:

1991 – 2000 Policy: rewards & punishment Known as the “sticks & carrots” offered to drug traffickers Created by: Attorney General’s Office and several special units in charge of criminal investigations Assassination of Pablo Escobar Air bridge denial strategy Faceless Justice

Advantage :

Advantage General reduction of violence Less homicides & other violent crimes reported Corruption in the justice system Less ability for the Cartels’ to influence & intimidated Subordination of power Less interference in U.S. interest such as extradition, or Colombia’s government Disadvantage Production, processing & distribution Amount, price, & purity FARC & paramilitaries increase Major cartels collapse: Colombia benefits

Uribe Administration (2001-2010):

Uribe Administration (2001-2010) Proposed the Democratic Defense and Security Program (PSD) combat terrorist threats, illicit-drug business, illicit finances, weapons, ammunitions and explosives , drug trafficking, kidnappings, extortion, and homicide. It decreased the # of homicides, kidnappings, massacres, and the economy improved. Demobilization of paramilitaries –LJP law Border security Production of coca Health and environment issues Unnecessary detentions & executions Colombian security privitazed Slow reestablished rule of law Advantage Disadvantage

Plan Colombia and FARC: Peace negotiations:

Plan Colombia and FARC: Peace negotiations Plan Colombia Legal provisions 2 version of Plan Colombia 1 st Pastrana administration (1998-2002) 2 nd Clinton administration and Uribe administration Instrument of peace to a war plan Effective in military gains against the FARC


Conclusion Policies not effective Lack of cooperation and unity Slow progress Globlal D rug traffickers are global and difficult to control

Questions to think about:

Questions to think about What do you think would be the solution to combat the globalization of drug trafficking What sanctions would you impose if you lived in Colombia? How would you feel if the drug phenomenon occurred in the United States instead of in Colombia or other countries?

References :

References Alsema , A. (2016, December 22). What do you mean Colombia’s extradition treaty with the US was never legal? Retrieved May 04, 2017, from http :// / Bagley , B. M., & Rosen, J. D. (2015).  Drug trafficking, organized crime, and violence in the Americas today . Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Renwick , D., & Felter , C. (2009, Aug). Colombia's Civil Conflict. Retrieved May 7 , 2017 .

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