HISTORY OF PUBLIC HEALTH & PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING[1]

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HISTORY OF PUBLIC HEALTH & PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING:

HISTORY OF PUBLIC HEALTH & PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING ENRICO SANTOS R.N., M.P.H. and Henry Paul Santos RN, MAN, DMS UNIVERSITY OF MAKATI DEC.2004

A. INFLUENCES OF ANCIENT CULTURES ON PUBLIC HEALTH:

A. INFLUENCES OF ANCIENT CULTURES ON PUBLIC HEALTH EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION (ca 3000 BC) Built irrigation canal and granaries for storage of food Practice of prophylaxis by the medicine man and high priest Emphasis on personal hygiene, cleanliness within & outside the body Sanitation measures ( removal of refuse and crude fumigation in times of epidemics)

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Hebrews (c.a. 1400 BC) Founders of public hygiene Moses “father of Sanitation” Mosaic Health Code pertained to every aspect of individual, family & community hygiene, included: a. Principles of personal hygiene (rest, sleep, hours of work, cleanliness)

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b. Environmental sanitation 1. Inspection of food 2. Methods of disposal of excreta 3. Detecting and reporting diseases 4. Practice of isolation, quarantine, fumigation and disinfection 5. Detailed instructions on the correct way of hand washing

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3. Greeks (ca. 600 BC) Hippocrates – “Father of Medicine” > exponent of the science of preventive medicine > introduced the philosophy of the interrelationship between physical and mental health ( “A healthy mind dwells in a healthy body”)

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4. Romans (ca. 50 BC) * Contributed to the field of sanitation (building of Aqueducts, purification of water supply) * Appointing of public health medical officers * Establishment of hospitals which emphasized both preventive and curative aspects of care

B. DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING AS A WORLD MOVEMENT:

B. DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING AS A WORLD MOVEMENT 1. Early Christian Period (1 st century) * order of Deaconesses- organized visiting of the sick - called visiting nurses - forerunner of CHN - endeavored to practice the corporal works of mercy (feeding the hungry, caring for the sick, burying the dead) Phoebe a friend of St Paul and the first Deaconess and visiting nurse.

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2. Middle Ages (500-1500) * Beguines of Flanders- worked as nursing sister in the hospital, but also gave care to the sick in their homes, staying with the dying and consoling the families of the bereaved.

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3. Renaissance (1500-1700) St Vincent De Paul- introduced modern principles of visiting nurse and social services * taught that indiscriminate giving was harmful * emphasized the concept of helping people help themselves * organized the daughters of charity primarily for the care of the sick at home * maintained the family is the unit of the service * recognized the importance of supervision of those who render service to the sick

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Early 19 th century Pastor Theodor Fliedner- German Lutheran pastor, went tour to raise funds when the main industry of his community failed, came back with money and ideas for a program social work. Fredericka Munster Fliedner- a wife pastor organized women society for visiting nursing the sick poor in their homes Couple recognized the need for preparing the training those who care for the sick , organized a hospital school of nursing in Germany ( Kaiserswerth Institute for the training of Deaconesses)

C. Development of Modern PHN:

C. Development of Modern PHN 1 Characterized by clean-up measures in the control of communicable dse Removal of refuse Clean-up campaign of prison and asylums Improvement of working conditions of women and children William Rathbone father of modern district nursing with the encouragement of florence Nightingale, organized a training school for nurses in the liverpool Royal Infirmary which provided training for hospital nurses, private duty nurses and district nurse.

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2 Period of Scientific Control of Communicable Diseases(1890-1910) -Application of bacteriology and immunology 3 Period of health education (1910-present) - Characterized by education for prevention of diseases with active cooperation of the individual in the health action

D. PHN in USA:

D. PHN in USA 1 Lillian Wald Conceived the idea of establishing a neighborhood nursing service for the sick poor in the lower east side of New York To her “the home visit should be like that of really interested friend, rather than that of an impersonal paid visitors 2 Teacher College of University of Columbia (1912) -offered the first course of study of PHN

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3. National Organization PHN organized in 1912 to upgrade the practice of PHN through standardization of policies regarding the function and qualification of PHN.

E. PHN in THE Philippines:

E. PHN in THE Philippines Pre- Spanish Era- no records Spanish Regime (1591-1898) Bro. Juan Climente (1577) – Started Public Health Services though a dispensary in Intramuros Started water sanitation Introduced small pox vaccine Creation of position of district, provincial, national health officers

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3 American Regime (1898- 1942) 1898 creation of board of the Health for Physician 1899 appointment of the first commissioner of health 1906 abolition of the board of health, creation of bureau of health 1912 PHN started in Cebu w/ 4 graduate nurses who dealt primarily in MCH services 1915 PHN began in Manila with 2 nurses who offered follow-up care of OB patients and envt sanitation services

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4. Japanese Regime (1942-1945) PHN services were interrupted 5. Era of the Republic of the Philippines (1946 to present) * 1947 DOH was divided into 3 bureaus A Hospital B Quarantine C Health

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May 18, 1954 – RA 1082 (RHU Act) was passed, implemented in July of the same year, provided for the employment of health personnel, including nurses, who would man the RHUs and help raise the health conditions of the rural population. June 1957 – RA 1891 (An Act Strengthening Health and Dental Services in the Rural Areas and Providing Funds Thereof) was approved; created eight(8) categories of RHUs corresponding to 8 population groups to be served.

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1975 – Formulation of the National Health Plan and the restructured Health Care Delivery System. 1992- Devolution transferred authority to LGU by virtue of the Local Government Code. Appointments of RHU/City Health Department personnel (including nursing personnel) have to be approved by the mayor. Material supplies of health center have to be provided by the LGUs.

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