Typology of Groups

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Typology of Groups


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Typology of Groups:

Typology of Groups Dr. G C Mohanta, BE, MSc(Engg), MBA, PhD(Mgt) Professor Al-Qurmoshi Institute of Business Management Hyderabad


Group A group is defined as two or more interacting & interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular goals A group may be defined as a number of individuals who join together to achieve a goal. People join groups to achieve goals that cannot be achieved by them alone.

Basic Group Concepts:

Basic Group Concepts Role - set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone who occupies a given position in a social unit group members have particular roles roles oriented towards task accomplishment or maintaining group member satisfaction individuals play multiple roles role conflict - individual confronted by different role expectations

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.):

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.) Norms - acceptable standards or expectations that are shared by the group’s members Each group has: its own unique set of norms common norms related to levels of effort and performance exert powerful influence on performance Conformity - acceptance by group makes some members susceptible to conformity pressures group norms push members toward conformity results in alignment of opinions

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.):

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.) Status - a prestige grading, position, or rank in a group may be conferred informally based on personal characteristics may be formally conferred Group Size - effect on behavior of group depends upon the type of outcome large groups - good for getting diverse input small groups - good at making use of information dispersion of responsibility in large groups leads to free rider tendency

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.):

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.) Group Cohesiveness - degree to which members are attracted to a group and share the group’s goals Relationship between cohesiveness and group effectiveness depends upon the alignment of group & organizational goals

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.):

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.) External Conditions Imposed on the Group formal group is a subsystem of a larger system group affected by the overall strategy, authority structures, formal regulations, resources, performance management system, and organization culture Group Member Resources - task-relevant and intellectual abilities of individual members abilities set parameters on effectiveness of performance in a group positive attributes - sociability and self-reliance negative attributes - dominance and unconventionality

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.):

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.) Group Structure - structural variables include roles, norms, status, and group size Group Processes - include communication, decision making, leadership, and conflict resolution process factors created in the group may have a positive or negative effect on group performance Group Tasks Complexity - simple tasks are routine and standardized complex tasks are novel and non-routine important to have effective communication and controlled conflict when task is complex

Characteristics of an Effective Groups:

Characteristics of an Effective Groups High commitment to achieving goals Clear understanding of the group’s work Open communication and trust Ideas sharing and generating Constructive criticism and suggestions

Factors Affecting Group Decisions :

Factors Affecting Group Decisions Size of groups: ideally 5, over 21 ineffective Communication ways: centralization or decentralization Leadership styles: automatic, persuasive, consultative or democratic Skills used in groups: contribution skills, cooperation skills, production skills

Functions of Groups :

Functions of Groups For the organization Accomplish jobs that can not be done by one individual, especially complex tasks Aid decision making Help control individual behavior Facilitate changes For the individual Help learn about the company and the individuals themselves Help in gaining new skills Obtain rewards unable to be achieved alone Satisfy personal needs in social acceptance, esteem

Stages of Group Development:

Stages of Group Development Pre-stage Stage I Forming Stage II Storming Stage III Norming Stage V Adjourning Stage IV Performing


Forming Groups members try to set rules for group behaviors Individuals start to find out about each other. Guidance is needed from the leader. Characteristics of the Forming Stage : Exploration. Focus on similarities and differences. First impressions are key. Confusion/anxiety. Lower productivity. Issues of inclusion, leadership, developing trust. Open communication is a must.

Storming :

Storming A conflict stage where members bargain with each other. Individuals reveal their personal goals and may resist the control of others. Characteristics of the Storming Stage: Competition. Strained relationships. Leader is challenged. Tension and disunity. Differences are uncomfortable. Issues of autonomy vs. control, support vs. competition, influence, and decision-making.

Norming :

Norming Group members are developing ways of working together. They agree on the shared goals. Rules have been developed. Characteristics of the Norming Stage: Increased cohesion. More collaboration. Emerging trust. Appreciation of differences. Issues of strengthening relationships, open communication, positive/constructive feedback.

Performing :

Performing The group has developed unity or cohesion. People are getting the job done to realize goals. Characteristics of the Performing Stage: Productivity. Problem-solving. Shared and participative leadership. Full development of potential.

Adjourning :

Adjourning The group ends. The group terminates because the task has been achieved or when the members have left due to failure or loss of interest. The feelings of members vary at this stage. While some may be happy about the group's accomplishments, others may be depressed that they would be losing their friends after the group is disbanded.

Typology of Groups:

Typology of Groups Formal groups - Groups specially set up by an organization to carry out tasks An actual part of the organization with arranged meetings and rules determining behavior & actions Informal groups - Groups made up of individuals in business with similar interests Not an actual part of the organization with no formal rules determining behavior and actions Primary groups : are characterized by small size, face to face interaction and intimacy among members of group. e.g., family, neighbourhood group.

Typology of Groups:

Typology of Groups Secondary groups: characterized by large size, individual identification with the values and beliefs prevailing in them rather than cultural interaction. e.g., occupational association and ethnic group. Task groups: are composed of people who work together to perform a task but involve cross-command relationship. e.g., for finding out who was responsible for causing wrong medication order, would require liaison between ward in charge, senior sister and head nurse. Social groups : refers to integrated system of interrelated psychological group formed to accomplish defined objectives. e.g., political party with its many local political clubs.

Typology of Groups (Contd.):

Typology of Groups (Contd.) Reference groups : one in which they would like to belong. Membership groups : those where the individual actually belongs. Command groups : formed by subordinates reporting directly to the particular manager are determined by formal organizational chart. Functional groups : the individuals work together daily on similar tasks. Problem solving groups: it focuses on specific issues in their areas of responsibility, develops potential solution and often empowered to take action.

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