Groups_Group Dev_Turning Groups into Effective Teams

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Groups, Group Development, Turning Groups into Effective Teams

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Groups & Group Development, Turning Groups into Effective Teams:

Groups & Group Development, Turning Groups into Effective Teams Dr. G C Mohanta, BE, MSc( Engg ), MBA, PhD(Mgt) Professor Al- Qurmoshi Institute of Business Management Hyderabad

Group:

Group Group is defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve particular goals Formal groups - Groups specially set up by an organization to carry out tasks An actual part of the organization with arranged meetings and rules determining behavior & actions Informal groups - Groups made up of individuals in business with similar interests Not an actual part of the organization with no formal rules determining behavior and actions

Basic Group Concepts:

Basic Group Concepts Role - set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone who occupies a given position in a social unit group members have particular roles roles oriented towards task accomplishment or maintaining group member satisfaction individuals play multiple roles role conflict - individual confronted by different role expectations

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.):

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.) Norms - acceptable standards or expectations that are shared by the group’s members Each group has: its own unique set of norms common norms related to levels of effort and performance exert powerful influence on performance Conformity - acceptance by group makes some members susceptible to conformity pressures group norms push members toward conformity results in alignment of opinions

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.):

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.) Status - a prestige grading, position, or rank in a group may be conferred informally based on personal characteristics may be formally conferred Group Size - effect on behavior of group depends upon the type of outcome large groups - good for getting diverse input small groups - good at making use of information dispersion of responsibility in large groups leads to free rider tendency

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.):

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.) Group Cohesiveness - degree to which members are attracted to a group and share the group’s goals Relationship between cohesiveness and group effectiveness depends upon the alignment of group & organizational goals

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.):

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.) External Conditions Imposed on the Group formal group is a subsystem of a larger system group affected by the overall strategy, authority structures, formal regulations, resources, performance management system, and organization culture Group Member Resources - task-relevant and intellectual abilities of individual members abilities set parameters on effectiveness of performance in a group positive attributes - sociability and self-reliance negative attributes - dominance and unconventionality

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.):

Basic Group Concepts (Contd.) Group Structure - structural variables include roles, norms, status, and group size Group Processes - include communication, decision making, leadership, and conflict resolution process factors created in the group may have a positive or negative effect on group performance Group Tasks Complexity - simple tasks are routine and standardized complex tasks are novel and non-routine important to have effective communication and controlled conflict when task is complex

Characteristics of an Effective Groups:

Characteristics of an Effective Groups High commitment to achieving goals Clear understanding of the group’s work Open communication and trust Ideas sharing and generating Constructive criticism and suggestions

Factors Affecting Group Decisions :

Factors Affecting Group Decisions The size of groups: ideally 5, over 21 ineffective Communication ways: centralization or decentralization Leadership styles: automatic, persuasive, consultative or democratic Skills used in groups: contribution skills, cooperation skills, production skills

Functions of Groups :

Functions of Groups For the organization Accomplish jobs that can not be done by one individual, especially complex tasks Aid decision making Help control individual behavior Facilitate changes For the individual Help learn about the company and the individuals themselves Help in gaining new skills Obtain rewards unable to be achieved alone Satisfy personal needs in social acceptance esteem

Stages of Group Development:

Stages of Group Development Pre-stage Stage I Forming Stage II Storming Stage III Norming Stage V Adjourning Stage IV Performing

Forming:

Forming Groups members try to set rules for group behaviors Individuals start to find out about each other. Guidance is needed from the leader. Characteristics of the Forming Stage : Exploration. Focus on similarities and differences. First impressions are key. Confusion/anxiety. Lower productivity. Issues of inclusion, leadership, developing trust. Open communication is a must.

Storming :

Storming A conflict stage where members bargain with each other. Individuals reveal their personal goals and may resist the control of others. Characteristics of the Storming Stage: Competition. Strained relationships. Leader is challenged. Tension and disunity. Differences are uncomfortable. Issues of autonomy vs. control, support vs. competition, influence, and decision-making.

Norming :

Norming Group members are developing ways of working together. They agree on the shared goals. Rules have been developed. Characteristics of the Norming Stage: Increased cohesion. More collaboration. Emerging trust. Appreciation of differences. Issues of strengthening relationships, open communication, positive/constructive feedback.

Performing :

Performing The group has developed unity or cohesion. People are getting the job done to realize goals. Characteristics of the Performing Stage: Productivity. Problem-solving. Shared and participative leadership. Full development of potential.

Adjourning :

Adjourning The group ends. The group terminates because the task has been achieved or when the members have left due to failure or loss of interest. The feelings of members vary at this stage. While some may be happy about the group's accomplishments, others may be depressed that they would be losing their friends after the group is disbanded.

Slide 18:

Turning Groups Into Effective Teams

What Is a Team? :

What Is a Team? Work team - formal group made up of interdependent individuals who are responsible for the attainment of a goal Work teams are popular in organizations

Why Are Work Teams Popular?:

Why Are Work Teams Popular? Why Use Teams? Creates a feeling of pride & mutual loyalty Takes advantage of workforce diversity Increases flexibility Increases performance Allows managers to do more strategic Management

Types of Teams:

Types of Teams Product development Problem solving Reengineering Other organizational purposes desired Purpose Functional Cross-functional Membership Supervised Self-managed Structure Permanent Temporary Duration

Types of Teams (cont.):

Types of Teams (cont.) Teams based on membership Functional teams - composed of a manager and her/his employees from one functional area issues of authority, decision making, and leadership are relatively simple and clear attempt to solve problems in specific functional area Cross-functional teams - members come from different functional areas hybrid grouping of individuals who are experts in various specialties

Types of Teams (cont.):

Teams based on structure Supervised - under the direction of a manager Self-managed - operate without a manager responsible for a complete work process or segment assumes the responsibilities of managing itself have authority to make and implement decisions, finish projects, and address problems organizations plan to expand their use in the future Types of Teams (cont.)

Types of Teams (cont.):

Types of Teams (cont.) Virtual team - physically dispersed members are linked by computer technology miss the normal give-and-take or face-to-face discussions tend to be task oriented

Characteristics of Effective Teams:

Characteristics of Effective Teams

Characteristics of Effective Teams (contd.):

Characteristics of Effective Teams (contd.) Clear Goals - members understand and support the goals to be achieved Relevant Skills - members have the necessary technical and interpersonal skills Mutual Trust - members are confident in each others’ ability, character, and integrity strongly influenced by the organization’s culture Unified Commitment - loyalty and dedication to the team membership in the team an important aspect of the self Good Communication - messages are readily understood healthy dose of feedback from team members

Characteristics of Effective Teams (contd.):

Characteristics of Effective Teams (contd.) Negotiating Skills - flexibility requires members to possess these skills must be able to confront and reconcile differences arising from changing problems Appropriate Leadership - provide help in difficult situations plays role of coach or facilitator Internal and External Support - team requires a sound infrastructure team should have external resources required to perform its work

Managing Teams :

Managing Teams Planning - goal determination members understand and accept the team’s goals Organizing - clarify authority and structural issues support in the organization’s culture for employee involvement and autonomy must resolve issues of leadership, tasks to be performed, and assignment of tasks

Managing Teams (contd.):

Managing Teams (contd.) Leading - determine the role that leader will play deal with human dynamics of the team Controlling - performance criteria must reflect teamwork behaviors reward system must reflect team efforts and performance Gainsharing - incentive program that shares the gains of the efforts of employees with those of employers rewards directly related to performance

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